Cleora projecta - (Walker, 1860)
Projecta Gray Moth
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.113125
Element Code: IILEU18020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Other Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Geometridae Cleora
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B83HOD01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cleora projecta
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31May2002
Global Status Last Changed: 31May2002
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N5 (06Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Maine (SU), Massachusetts (SU), New York (SU), North Carolina (S3S4)
Canada Manitoba (SU), New Brunswick (SU), Ontario (SNR), Quebec (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

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Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MA, ME, NC, NY
Canada MB, NB, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NY Albany (36001), Suffolk (36103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Mohawk (02020004)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Southern Long Island (02030202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Heathland Lepidoptera

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs or recently has occurred where there is potential for continued occurrence or regular recurrence. Minimally a collection or for some species a diagnostic photograph in association with appropriate habitat and foodplant. Habitats usually do not include closed canopy forest even if the foodplant extends into such places. Generally, the Specs for Pine Barrens moths should be used when dealing with habitats greater than 200 hectares or if the heatlhands are imbedded within acid woodlands or barrens.
Mapping Guidance: See food and habitat comments field for species-specific habitat information when mapping these species. While relatively small patches of more closed canopy jack or pitch pine within an occurrence can be mapped as part of it do not extend occurrences boundaries beyond the prime habitat into these marginal types.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Size of occurrences and intervening landscape may be appropriate considerations in assigning separation distances--at least with moths. With small discrete habitats Specs for bo Lepidoptera can be used instead. Almost certainly when occurrences are confined to a few hectares the unsuitable habitat distance is appropriate. However if one or both occurrences occupies more than 100 hectares and the larval foodplant occurs patchily in the intervening terrain the suitable habitat distance may be more appropriate. In such case females from the primary habitats will probably oviposit in these intervening patches sufficiently to justify connecting the occurrences. This is especially true if the intervening terrain is a right-of-way with the larval foodplant. In general though do not use the suitable habitat distance if the foodplant is really absent for more than half the suitable habitat distance, and ignore scattered small, weak understory plants in determining this.
Separation Justification: Virtually all of these species occasionally turn up out of habitat and all occupy a range of habitat sizes. Although most of them can occur widely over large dry or mesic jack or pitch pine barrens, sometimes hundreds or thousands of hectares, they can also persist in bogs of only a few hectares. Small barrens remnants and ridgetop habitats may lack these species even though they will occur in even smaller bogs--this might reflect past fires.
Thus the separation distances are variable as explained in Alternate Separation Procedure. All distances are arbitrary. The suitable habitat distance will usually be moot because in habitats other than pine barrens most occurrences are much smaller than 10 kilometers across, in fact many are not close to a square kilometer. However in the few places where habitats really are large most of these moths can be expected to fully occupy them such situations would be qualify for the Pine Barrens Moths Specs. Given that these moths do stray out of habitat, but not commonly, the one kilometer distance is chosen as likely to confer substantial separation of smaller occurrences, but probably not complete lack of gene flow. Obviously the larger two sources are the more likely individuals are to move between them.
Among factors considered in the distances was flight speed which for most or all species is about .5 to 10 meters per second or about 1.8 to 36 km per hour. Aside from many Geometridae most probably exceed 10 km per hour. Even the slowest of these species should have no difficulty crossing these distances in life span and in most cases in a night.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In most cases habitats are small and inferred extent is simply the entire habitat up to 400 hectares. However in areas such as Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, Michigan and New Jersey heathland habitats (often actually pine barrens) can be thousands of hectares (more in New Jersey) so 2 kilometers seems a very conservative figure within large habitats.
Date: 09Nov2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Notes: Species that rarely occur in habitats other than pine barrens are not included in this Specs Group even if their larvae feed on heaths.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Covell, Charles V. 1984. A field guide to the moths of eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Forbes, William T. M. 1948. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states part II. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 274.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2014. Manitoba moth species list and ranks as recommended by expert.

  • Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.

  • Holland, W.J. 1968. The moth book. Dover Publications, NY, 479 pp. An unabridged version first published in 1903 by Doubleday, Page, and Co.

  • Jordan, M. 1998. Ecological effect of a large and severe summer wildfire in the Long Island dwarf pine barrens. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Long Island Chapter, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

  • Jordan, M. J., W. A. Patterson III, A. G. Windisch. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management 185, 151-168.

  • Little, S. 1979. Fire and plant succession in the New Jersey pine barrens. P. 297-313 in R. T. T. Forman, ed. Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, FL.

  • McGuinness, Hugh D. 2009. Moths of fire: a study of the macro-lepidoptera in burned and unburned plots at the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Sarnoff Preserve in Flanders, Suffolk County, New York. 2006-2008. Report for the Long Island Chapter of The Nature Conservancy.

  • McGuinness, Hugh. 2006. Overview of the 2005 Dwarf Pine Plains data.

  • NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Data last updated August 2010)

  • North American Moth Photographers Group at the Mississippi Entomological Museum. No date. Mississippi State University, Mississippi. http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml

  • Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2010. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. (accessed May 2010).

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Schweitzer, Dale F. 1998. Rare, potentially rare, and historic macrolepidoptera for Long Island, New York: A suggested inventory list.

  • Scoble, M. J. (ed.), M. S. Parsons, M. R. Honey, L. M. Pitkin, and B. R. Pitkin. 1999. Geometrid moths of the world: a catalogue. Volumes 1 and 2: 1016 pp. + index 129 pp. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.

  • Wagner, D. L, J. D. Lafontaine, N. McFarland, and B. A. Connolly. 2008. Early stages of Miracavira brillians (Barnes) and reassignment of the genus to the Amphipyrinae: Psaphidini: Feraliina (Noctuidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 62:40-51.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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