Circus hudsonius - (Linnaeus, 1766)
Northern Harrier
Other English Common Names: American Harrier
Synonym(s): Circus cyaneus hudsonius (Linnaeus, 1766) ;Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Circus cyaneus hudsonius (TSN 175431) ;Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 175430)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104766
Element Code: ABNKC11011
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae Circus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1957. The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, MD. 691 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B57AOU01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Circus cyaneus hudsonius
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly considered conspecific with C. cyaneus Linnaeus, 1766 [Hen Harrier], but treated as separate on the basis of differences in morphology, plumage, and breeding habitat (Grant 1983, Thorpe 1988, Dobson and Clarke 2011, Etherington and Mobley 2016) commensurate with differences between other recognized species of Circus (also see Wink et al. 1998, Wink and Sauer-Gürth 2004, Oatley et al. 2015) (AOU 2017). A partial salvaged specimen (distal right wing only) from Attu, June 1999, identified by wing chord length as a juvenile male C. cyaneus (Gibson et al. 2013), requires confirmation.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Aug2017
Global Status Last Changed: 21Aug2017
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N (09Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Alaska (S4B), Arizona (S1S2B,S5N), Arkansas (S1B,S4N), California (S3), Colorado (S3B), Connecticut (S1B), Delaware (S1B,S4N), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S4), Idaho (S4), Illinois (S2B,S3N), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S2B,S4N), Kansas (S2B,S4N), Kentucky (S1S2B,S4N), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S4B), Maryland (S2B), Massachusetts (S2B,S4N), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNRB,SNRN), Mississippi (S4N), Missouri (S2), Montana (S4B), Navajo Nation (S1B,S4N), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S4), New Hampshire (S1B), New Jersey (S1B,S3N), New Mexico (S2B,S5N), New York (S3B,S3N), North Carolina (S1B,S4N), North Dakota (SNRB,SNRN), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S3S5), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S3B,S4N), Rhode Island (S1B,S3N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S2B,S3N), Utah (S4B,S3N), Vermont (S3B), Virginia (S1S2B,S3N), Washington (S3B,S3N), West Virginia (S1B,S3N), Wisconsin (S3B,S2N), Wyoming (S4B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S4B), British Columbia (S4B), Labrador (S3B,SUM), Manitoba (S4B), New Brunswick (S4B,S4S5M), Newfoundland Island (S3B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S4?B), Nova Scotia (S3S4B), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4B), Prince Edward Island (S4B), Quebec (S3?), Saskatchewan (S5B,S4M,S2N), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1993)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: Declines in numbers have been noted in some areas, but this species is widespread and relatively common. It is relatively adaptable and losses of wetland habitat have not led to population declines.

Status history: Designated Not at Risk in April 1993.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017)
CA Alameda (06001), Butte (06007), Contra Costa (06013), Del Norte (06015), Fresno (06019), Inyo (06027), Marin (06041)*, Merced (06047), Mono (06051), Monterey (06053), Napa (06055), Orange (06059), Riverside (06065), San Diego (06073), San Joaquin (06077), San Luis Obispo (06079), San Mateo (06081), Santa Clara (06085), Solano (06095), Yolo (06113), Yuba (06115)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), Middlesex (09007)*, New Haven (09009), New London (09011)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
IA Adair (19001), Adams (19003), Appanoose (19007), Boone (19015), Calhoun (19025)*, Cerro Gordo (19033), Chickasaw (19037), Clay (19041), Decatur (19053), Dickinson (19059), Emmet (19063), Fayette (19065), Guthrie (19077), Hamilton (19079), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Johnson (19103), Kossuth (19109), Lucas (19117), Lyon (19119), Marion (19125), Monroe (19135)*, Palo Alto (19147), Pocahontas (19151)*, Ringgold (19159), Sac (19161), Story (19169), Taylor (19173), Van Buren (19177), Warren (19181), Wayne (19185), Winneshiek (19191), Worth (19195)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gem (16045), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Lewis (16061), Lincoln (16063), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085), Washington (16087)
IL Brown (17009), Cass (17017), Champaign (17019), DuPage (17043), Grundy (17063)*, Jasper (17079), Johnson (17087), Lake (17097), Marion (17121), Mchenry (17111)*, Mclean (17113), Montgomery (17135), Perry (17145), Pike (17149)*, Pope (17151)*, Randolph (17157), Saline (17165), Sangamon (17167), Schuyler (17169), St. Clair (17163), Tazewell (17179), Vermilion (17183), Will (17197)*, Winnebago (17201)
IN Allen (18003), Bartholomew (18005), Benton (18007), Brown (18013), Daviess (18027), De Kalb (18033), Elkhart (18039)*, Gibson (18051), Greene (18055), Huntington (18069), Jasper (18073)*, Jay (18075), Jennings (18079), Johnson (18081), Kosciusko (18085), La Porte (18091), Lagrange (18087)*, Miami (18103), Newton (18111), Ohio (18115), Parke (18121), Pike (18125), Porter (18127)*, Pulaski (18131)*, Ripley (18137), Starke (18149)*, Sullivan (18153), Switzerland (18155), Vermillion (18165), Vigo (18167), Wabash (18169), Warrick (18173), White (18181)
KY Hart (21099), Hopkins (21107), Logan (21141), McLean (21149), Muhlenberg (21177), Ohio (21183)
MA Barnstable (25001), Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005)*, Dukes (25007), Essex (25009), Franklin (25011)*, Hampden (25013)*, Hampshire (25015)*, Middlesex (25017)*, Nantucket (25019), Norfolk (25021)*, Plymouth (25023)*, Worcester (25027)*
MD Baltimore County (24005), Dorchester (24019), Garrett (24023), Montgomery (24031)*, Somerset (24039), St. Marys (24037), Worcester (24047)
MI Barry (26015)*, Bay (26017), Chippewa (26033), Clare (26035), Delta (26041), Huron (26063), Mackinac (26097), Macomb (26099)*, Manistee (26101)*, Mason (26105)*, Montcalm (26117), Muskegon (26121), Saginaw (26145), Wexford (26165)
MO Barton (29011), Bates (29013), Carroll (29033), Cedar (29039), Clay (29047), Dade (29057), DeKalb (29063), Dent (29065), Gentry (29075), Harrison (29081), Jasper (29097), Linn (29115), Livingston (29117), Macon (29121), Morgan (29141)*, Newton (29145), Pettis (29159), St. Clair (29185), Vernon (29217)
MS Grenada (28043), Hancock (28045)*, Harrison (28047)*, Jackson (28059)*, Montgomery (28097)
NC Carteret (37031), Dare (37055), Hyde (37095)
NE Blaine (31009)*, Boyd (31015), Cherry (31031), Fillmore (31059), Garden (31069), Harlan (31083), Hitchcock (31087), Keith (31101), Sheridan (31161), Thomas (31171)*
NH Coos (33007), Grafton (33009), Merrimack (33013)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011), Hudson (34017), Hunterdon (34019), Mercer (34021), Middlesex (34023), Monmouth (34025), Morris (34027), Ocean (34029), Salem (34033), Somerset (34035), Sussex (34037), Union (34039), Warren (34041)
NM Mckinley (35031), San Juan (35045)
NY Albany (36001), Allegany (36003), Cattaraugus (36009), Cayuga (36011), Chautauqua (36013), Chemung (36015), Clinton (36019), Columbia (36021), Cortland (36023), Erie (36029), Essex (36031), Franklin (36033), Genesee (36037), Greene (36039), Hamilton (36041), Herkimer (36043), Jefferson (36045), Kings (36047), Lewis (36049), Livingston (36051), Madison (36053), Monroe (36055), Montgomery (36057), Nassau (36059), Niagara (36063), Oneida (36065), Onondaga (36067), Ontario (36069), Orange (36071), Orleans (36073), Oswego (36075), Otsego (36077), Queens (36081), Rensselaer (36083), Saratoga (36091), Schoharie (36095), Schuyler (36097), Seneca (36099), St. Lawrence (36089), Steuben (36101), Suffolk (36103), Tioga (36107), Tompkins (36109), Ulster (36111), Washington (36115), Wayne (36117), Westchester (36119), Wyoming (36121)
OH Ashtabula (39007), Clermont (39025)*, Hardin (39065), Licking (39089)*, Mahoning (39099)*, Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Noble (39121), Portage (39133), Trumbull (39155), Wood (39173), Wyandot (39175)
PA Allegheny (42003), Berks (42011)*, Bradford (42015), Cambria (42021), Centre (42027), Clarion (42031), Cumberland (42041), Delaware (42045), Elk (42047), Luzerne (42079), Monroe (42089), Philadelphia (42101), Somerset (42111), Sullivan (42113), Tioga (42117), Venango (42121), Wayne (42127)*, Wyoming (42131)
RI Washington (44009)
VA Accomack (51001), Gloucester (51073), Hampton (City) (51650), Henrico (51087)*, Mathews (51115), Northampton (51131), Poquoson (City) (51735), Portsmouth (City) (51740), Prince George (51149)*, York (51199)
WV Preston (54077)*, Tucker (54093)*, Wood (54107)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+, Pemigewasset (01070001)+, Contoocook (01070003)+, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Chicopee (01080204)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Mohawk (02020004)+, Schoharie (02020005)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Rondout (02020007)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Northern Long Island (02030201)+, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Long Island Sound (02030203)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02040304)+, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+, Chenango (02050102)+, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+, Tioga (02050104)+, Chemung (02050105)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+, Pine (02050205)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Upper Chesapeake Bay (02060001)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Severn (02060004)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*, Lower Chesapeake Bay (02080101)+, Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102)+, York (02080107)+, Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+, Lower James (02080206)+*, Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+*, Escatawpa (03170008)+*, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+*
04 Cedar-Ford (04030109)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+*, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+, Manistee (04060103)+*, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+, St. Marys (04070001)+, Carp-Pine (04070002)+, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102)+, Birch-Willow (04080104)+, Shiawassee (04080203)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+*, Clinton (04090003)+*, St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004)+, Upper Maumee (04100005)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Grand (04110004)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Upper Genesee (04130002)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+, Black (04150101)+, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)+, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Indian (04150303)+, Grass (04150304)+, Raquette (04150305)+, St. Regis (04150306)+, English-Salmon (04150307)+, Chateaugay-English (04150308)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Saranac River (04150406)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Conemaugh (05010007)+, Cheat (05020004)+*, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Wills (05040005)+, Licking (05040006)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Little Miami (05090202)+*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Upper Green (05110001)+, Middle Green (05110003)+, Rough (05110004)+, Lower Green (05110005)+, Pond (05110006)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Salamonie (05120102)+, Mississinewa (05120103)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Vermilion (05120109)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Embarras (05120112)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Little Wabash (05120114)+, Skillet (05120115)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Driftwood (05120204)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+*, Saline (05140204)+
07 Blue Earth (07020009)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, South Skunk (07080105)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, North Raccoon (07100006)+, South Raccoon (07100007)+, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, The Sny (07110004)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+*, Upper Fox (07120006)+*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Mackinaw (07130004)+, Upper Sangamon (07130006)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, La Moine (07130010)+, Macoupin (07130012)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)+, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)+
08 Yalobusha (08030205)+
10 Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Muskrat (10080004)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Dry Fork Cheyenne (10120102)+, Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Lance (10120104)+, Lightning (10120105)+, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Hat (10120108)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Lower Lodgepole (10190016)+, Sidney Draw (10190017)+, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+*, Dismal (10210002)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Nodaway (10240010)+, Platte (10240012)+, Upper Republican (10250004)+, Harlan County Reservoir (10250009)+, Turkey (10270204)+, Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Little Osage (10290103)+, Marmaton (10290104)+, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Sac (10290106)+, South Grand (10290108)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+*, Lamine (10300103)+
11 Spring (11070207)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Middle San Juan (14080105)+, Chaco (14080106)+
15 Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Upper Puerco (15020006)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Upper Weber (16020101)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Birch (17040216)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Payette (17050122)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+
18 Smith (18010101)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather (18020159)+, Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+, San Joaquin Delta (18040003)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Suisun Bay (18050001)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+*, Pajaro (18060002)+, Salinas (18060005)+, Central Coastal (18060006)+, San Jacinto (18070202)+, Aliso-San Onofre (18070301)+, Santa Margarita (18070302)+, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+*, San Diego (18070304)+, Cottonwood-Tijuana (18070305)+, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Owens Lake (18090103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Hawks and Falcons

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: If nest site is separated from feeding area by more than 100 meters, map as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance a compromise between usually relatively small home ranges and obvious mobility of these birds. Home ranges variable, ranging from about 0.5 to about 90 square kilometers; the latter figure refers to nests where birds commuted some distance to feeding grounds. A number of studies give mean home ranges on the order of 7 square kilometers, which equates to a circle with a diameter of about 3 kilometers; three times that home range gives a separation distance of about 10 kilometers. Home ranges: Ferruginous Hawk, mean 5.9 square kilometers in Utah (Smith and Murphy 1973); range 2.4 to 21.7 square kilometers, mean 7.0 square kilometers in Idaho (Olendorff 1993); mean 7.6 square kilometers in Idaho (McAnnis 1990); mean 90 square kilometers in Washington (Leary et al. 1998); Red-tailed Hawk, most forage within 3 kilometers of nest (Kochert 1986); mean spring and summer male home ranges 148 hectares (Petersen 1979); Hawaiian Hawk, 48 to 608 hectares (n = 16; Clarkson and Laniawe 2000); Zone-tailed Hawk, little information, apparent home range 1-2 kilometers/pair in west Texas (Johnson et al. 2000); White tailed Kite, rarely hunts more than 0.8 kilometers from nest (Hawbecker 1942); Prairie Falcon, 26 square kilometers in Wyoming (Craighead and Craighead 1956), 59 to 314 square kilometers (reported by Steenhof 1998); Aplomado Falcon, 2.6 to 9.0 square kilometers (n = 5, Hector 1988), 3.3 to 21.4 square kilometers (n = 10, Montoya et al. 1997). Nest site fidelity: high in Zone-tailed Hawk; all seven west Texas nesting territories occupied in 1975 were reused in 1976 (Matteson and Riley 1981). Swainson's Hawk: In California, dispersal distances from natal sites to subsequent breeding sites ranged from 0 to 18 kilometers, mean 8.8 kilometers (Woodbridge et al. 1995); in contrast, none of 697 nestlings in Saskatchewan returned to the study area; three were found 190, 200 and 310 kilometers away (Houston and Schmutz 1995).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Foraging range variable; 3 kilometers is the mean diameter in several species.
Date: 13Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering birds (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, usually minimally a reliable observation of 5 birds (this can be reduced to 1 individual for rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. However, occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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