Carex wiegandii - Mackenzie
Wiegand's Sedge
Other Common Names: Wiegand's sedge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carex wiegandii Mackenzie (TSN 39871)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152271
Element Code: PMCYP03ES0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Carex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carex wiegandii
Taxonomic Comments: A distinct species, recognized by Kartesz (1994 and 1999).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 31Aug2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread species with scattered extant occurrences known. However, a large percentage of the occurrences, particularly those in Quebec and Newfoundland, are located in remote areas with few or any threats. Also, large areas in northern Quebec and Newfoundland have not been thoroughly surveyed for the species and it is suspected that a significant number of new occurrences could be discovered. Considered secure (rank of "4" attributed in 2005) in Canada by the General Status Working Group on canadian species. Populations may exceed thousands of individuals.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (31Aug2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Maine (S4), Massachusetts (SH), Michigan (S3), New Hampshire (S1), New York (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), Vermont (S1)
Canada New Brunswick (S3), Newfoundland Island (S3), Nova Scotia (S3), Ontario (S1), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: An eastern or northern North American maritime species, occupying portions of Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, eastern Ontario, Maine, New York (the Adirondacks), New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Michigan and Pennsylvania (the Alleghenies). The species tends to be concentrated in Newfoundland (with its center of distribution being Quebec), becoming increasingly rarer toward inland situations.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: At least 30 occurrences reported from Quebec, based on herbarium specimens; at least 15 occurrences in New-Brunswick and 14 in Newfoundland Island. These numbers are suspected of being largely underestimated, especially for Quebec and Newfoundland.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: There seem to be little or no threats in the northern part of its range where most of the occurrences are located. In the U.S., threats to the species include the adverse affects caused by logging activities and other physical perturbations of habitat (MI NFI 1990, Penskar pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Trends have not been substantiated. It is suspected that the species has declined from presettlement levels due primarily to habitat loss; however, in the north (Quebec and Newfoundland), there does not seem to be a decline.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Plants of the genus Carex are usually not intrinsically vulnerable due to abundant sexual reproduction and vegetative multiplication. Its habitat is specialized but widely dispersed over a large area.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: An eastern or northern North American maritime species, occupying portions of Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, eastern Ontario, Maine, New York (the Adirondacks), New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Michigan and Pennsylvania (the Alleghenies). The species tends to be concentrated in Newfoundland (with its center of distribution being Quebec), becoming increasingly rarer toward inland situations.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MA, ME, MI, NH, NY, PA, VT
Canada NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Worcester (25027)*
ME Aroostook (23003), Franklin (23007), Hancock (23009), Knox (23013), Oxford (23017)*, Penobscot (23019), Piscataquis (23021), Somerset (23025), Waldo (23027), Washington (23029), York (23031)
MI Chippewa (26033), Delta (26041), Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097)
NH Carroll (33003), Coos (33007), Grafton (33009)
NY Franklin (36033)
PA Elk (42047), McKean (42083)
VT Essex (50009), Rutland (50021), Windham (50025), Windsor (50027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001)+, Allagash (01010002)+, Fish (01010003)+, Aroostook (01010004)+, West Branch Penobscot (01020001)+, East Branch Penobscot (01020002)+, Lower Penobscot (01020005)+, Upper Kennebec (01030001)+, Dead (01030002)+, Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+*, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+*, Maine Coastal (01050002)+, Presumpscot (01060001)+, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Pemigewasset (01070001)+, Nashua (01070004)+*, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+, Deerfield (01080203)+
04 Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Tahquamenon (04020202)+, Waiska (04020203)+, Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111)+, Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112)+, Carp-Pine (04070002)+, St. Regis (04150306)+
05 Clarion (05010005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A clump forming sedge with triangular stems, 3-4 leaves per culm, and 3-6 terminal spikes in an approximate terminal head.
General Description: Carex wiegandii is a grass-like tufted perennial. It has long strap-like leaves that are 1.7-5.0 mm wide. Numerous flowering/fruiting stems, 10-105 cm long, arise from the tufted leaves at the base of the plants. There are a few leaves on the stems and toward the tip of these stems are 4-6 flower/fruit clusters. These flower clusters have female flowers at the tip and male flowers at the base. The female flowers develop into fruits (perigynia) that are 2.6-3.8 mm long and 1.3-2.1 mm wide. Once mature the fruits easily fall from the plants (Reznicek 2002).
Technical Description:

Reznicek and Ball (1980) described Carex wiegandii Mackenzie as follows:

"Rhizomes short; plants cespitose; roots smooth, pale yellow-brown to dark grey-brown; culms 10-105 cm, erect, elongating in fruit, aphyllopodic, smooth to slightly scabrous above; basal sheaths persistent, brown. Leaves 3-8 per culm, all in basal third, usually shorter than culms in fruit; blades 11-45 cm X 1.7-5.0 mm, plicate, antrorsely scabrous above, upper blades of culm much longer than lower and blades of sterile shoots longer; widest leaf 2.8-5.0 mm. Sheath covering nodes, tight, glabrous or sometimes hispidulous on the veins, that of uppermost leaf 4-23 cm; inner band hyaline, rarely purple dotted; sheath apex concave, strongly thickened; ligule 0.9-2.5 mm, rounded to obtuse. Infrutescense 8.6-30 mm, dense; spikes 4-6. Terminal spike 6.1-14.5 mm, staminate at base, pistillate above; staminate portion 2-8.6 mm X 0.8-1.3 mm, 5-20-flowered; pistillate portion 3.0-8.0 mm X 5.0-7.3 mm, 7-25-flowered. Lateral spikes 4.5-8.0 mm, sessile, pistillate at apex and staminate at base; staminate portion (0) 0.5-2.0 mm, (0) 1-3-flowered; pistillate portion 3.0-8.0 mm, 5-21-flowered. Distance between upper 2 spikes 0.8-3.0 mm, distance between lower 2 spikes 1.3-9.5 mm; lateral spikes with short, scale-like bracts. Pistillate scales 1.45-2.0 (2.2) mm X 1.3-1.9 mm, ovate, one-veined, obtuse to subacute, sometimes shortly mucronate, castaneous with green center and hyaline margins. Staminate scales 1.2-2.3 mm X 1.4-1.8 mm, ovate, one-veined, obtuse to acute, castaneous with green center and hyaline margins. Lower perigynia of spikes spreading to reflexed, broadly ovate, 2.55-3.75 mm X (1.25) 1.4-2.0 (2.1) mm, (1.4) 1.6-2.5 times as long as wide, tapering to a beak, plano-convex, green to castaneous when first ripe, dark brown when over-mature, sessile, spongy-thickened at base surrounding achene; adaxial veins absent or up to 10, faint; abaxial veins 5-18; serrulate on margins to 0.1-0.8 mm below base of beak. Beak 0.55-1.1 (1.35) mm, 0.25-0.55 times as long as body, serrulate on margins, toothed apically; teeth more or less blunt, 0.2-0.5 mm. Achenes 1.4-1.9 mm X 1.1-1.55 mm, ovate, biconvex, sessile; style deciduous; stigmas 2. Anthers 3, 0.7-1.3 mm."

Diagnostic Characteristics: Leaves 2 to 5 mm wide; spikes 3-6, sessile, approximate; Perigynia less than 2 mm wide, with toothed beak. Achenes; lenticular; Stigmas: 2.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Carex wiegandii is a self-compatible sedge species (Reznicek pers. comm.), fruiting in mid-to-late summer or early fall. Mature fruits were present on specimens collected in Michigan on July 11 and August 22 (Crispin and Penskar 1990). Dispersion of seeds is facilitated by fruiting stems that elongate 3-4 feet in length, then fall flat to the ground where seeds are dispersed (Reznicek pers. comm.). Seedlings flower in their second year (Reznicek pers. comm.).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Carex wiegandii is an eastern or northeastern North American maritime species (Crins pers. comm., Reznicek pers. comm.), occupying portions of Quebec, New Brunswick, New Foundland and eastern Ontario in Canada, and Maine, New York (the Adirondacks), New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Michigan and Pennsylvania (the Alleghanies) in the United States (Reznicek and Ball 1980). The species tends to be concentrated in New Foundland, with its center of distribution being Quebec (Reznicek pers. comm.). It becomes increasingly rarer toward inland situations.

Over its range, C. wiegandii inhabits the acidic soils of drier, shrubby, sometimes disturbed, margins of acidic sphagnum bogs or poor fens (Reznicek pers. comm.). Carex wiegandii is most commonly found in this habitat type throughout its range, but has also been collected from acidic, sandy flats.

In Michigan, C. wiegandii is known from shrubby sphagnum bogs, graminoid swales and, occasionally, in borrow pits (Penskar pers. comm.) within Chippewa and Luce Counties (Crispin and Penskar 1990). Associates in bogs include Sphagnum recurvum, Alnus rugosa, Thuja occidentalis, Picea mariana, Solidago uliginosa, Carex echinata and a species of Iris (Crispin and Penskar 1990). In swales, associates include Alnus rugosa, Acer rubrum, Pinus banksiana, Aster nemoralis, Glyceria canadensis, Carex sterilis and a species of Iris.

There are five historic populations in Vermont, but three are of questionable identification (Popp pers. comm.). No known extant populations exist, possibly lost through wetland drainage and/or succession.

Naczi (pers. comm.) reported finding C. wiegandii in York County, Maine. Plants were infrequent in lightly shaded, damp, peaty sand in the midst of moist acid clearings in a scrubby woods of Betula papyrifera and Acer rubrum. Associates included Lycopodium inundatum, Drosera rotundifolia, D. intermedia, Kalmia angustifolia, Lyonia ligustrina, Carex canescens, C. debilis, Osmunda cinnamomea and O. regalis. In nearby woods, Carex folliculata and Maianthemum canadense were abundant.

In Pennsylvania, C. wiegandii is known from two sites, Cathryn Swamp in McKeen County, and Midmont Swamp in Elk County (Bissell pers. comm.). Both sites are south of the glacial boundary within the Allegheny Mountains. Occupied habitat has been characterized as high-plateau white pine-hemlock-mixed hardwood swamps. At these sites, C. wiegandii is abundant to the tens of thousands, especially where beaver activity has inundated the ground. Where trees have recently died due to the high water levels, C. wiegandii is a dominant. An associate at these sites is Carex echinata (Bissell pers. comm.). Historic collections within the state suggest open boggy ground and Sphagnum bogs as habitat (Rothrock 1978).

In New York, C. wiegandii is known from two habitats. One population occurs at the edge of a bog in a black pruce/tamarack swamp. Associates include Picea marina, Larix laricina and a species of Sphagnum. At a second site, populations occur in a patterned peatland edged by Picea mariana and Larix laricina (Young pers. comm.).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Monitoring needs include an initiation of programs at some sites within an array of habitats to obtain information regarding the status of the species; trends in population levels, seed production and viability, and changes in habitat. Research should be centered around a comprehensive status survey in order to elucidate the true current status of this species, and an intensive study of habitat requirements of C. wiegandii. Occurrences are likely to require active management in order to control succession and maintain suitable habitat.
Restoration Potential: The recovery potential of C. wiegandii is not known. In proper habitat (high-altitude swamps where beavers have inundated large areas), C. wiegandii is a dominant species. At present, insufficient information persists to make any judgements on the restoration capabilities of this species.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Since this is a semi-aquatic species, all land protection efforts must encompass the watershed within which the species occurs. Poor land-use practices within the watershed may negatively impact the poor fen/bog and swamp habitats that C. wiegandii requires. Sufficient buffer should be obtained to assure that sites are protected from outside influences such as herbicide application.
Management Requirements: Popp (pers. comm.) suggested that any occurrences (if found within Vermont) would require active management in order to control succession and maintain suitable habitat. Management methodologies have not been formulated for the species.

Specific management procedures for C. wiegandii have not been formulated.

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring should be initiated at some of the primary sites within an array of habitats in order to obtain information concerning the status of the species. Selected sites should be monitored to gather information on trends in population levels, seed production and viability and changes in habitat over time.

Monitoring in small populations may consist merely of counting total stems. In larger populations, a more-intensive vegetation sampling effort (using randomized quadrats or other methodology) to track population levels should be initiated. Monitoring efforts on all selected sites should track the effects of current management on habitat and population quality. Additional parameters that may be worth monitoring might include seed production and viability within the population and a test of water chemistry.


Management Programs: At present, no known management programs are underway for C. wiegandii.
Monitoring Programs: Two extant populations in New York are being monitored every few years depending on population trends. Contact: Steve Young, New York Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environmental Conservation, 700 Troy-Schenectady Rd., Latham, NY 12110-2400. Telephone No. (518) 783-3932.
Management Research Programs: At present, no known research programs are underway with respect to C. wiegandii.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An Element Occurrence for Carex wiegandii is any natural population of one or more plants and the habitat on which the plant(s) is/are present. The species is probably a dynamic opportunist of disturbances that retard or set back succession in peatlands and other habitats (Reznicek pers. comm. 1997).
Separation Barriers: EOs are separated by either:
* a distance of at least 1 km of unsuitable habitat; or
* a distance of at least 2 km of apparently suitable habitat that is not known to be occupied.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for the large separation distance across unoccupied but suitable habitat is because of the growth response of propagules in the seed bank following flooding or other disturbances (e. g. , inundated areas in high-plateau white pine-hemlock-mixed hardwood swamps).

Date: 15Mar1997
Author: B. Nichols
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Populations greater than 300 plants with sufficient sexual and/or asexual recruitment to maintain numbers at current estimates deserve this rank. Populations occur in excellent habitats of large-size (>10 acres) and high natural integrity (margins of acidic sphagnum bogs, poor fens, graminoid swales, openings in high-plateau white pine-hemlock-mixed hardwood swamps or damp acidic peat-sand flats) with dynamic ecosystem processes. The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO should be excellent to receive an "A" rank.
Good Viability: Populations of 101-300 plants with sufficient sexual and/or asexual recruitment to sustain numbers at current estimates or populations larger than 1000 plants that show continued population decline (> 25% over a 5 year period) deserve this rank. Populations occur in good to excellent, moderate-sized (5-10 acres) to large-sized (> 10 acres) habitats with dynamic ecosystem processes (as described above that may show low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, but are largely natural). The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be good to excellent to receive a "B" rank. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at the rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next higher rank.
Fair Viability: Populations of 11-100 plants with sufficient sexual and/or asexual recruitment to sustain numbers at current estimates or populations larger than 100 plants that show continued population decline (> 25% over a 5 year period) deserve this rank. Populations occur in fair to excellent, small-sized (< 5 acres) to large-sized (> 10 acres) habitats (as described above that may show signs of moderate levels of anthropogenic disturbance, although apparently not permanently detrimental to most populations). The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be fair to excellent to receive a "C" rank. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at the rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next higher rank.
Poor Viability: Populations of 10 or fewer plants or populations of 11-100 plants that exhibit continued population decline (> 25% over a 5 year period) deserve this rank. Populations occur in any size poor habitat as described above with impaired ecosystem processes and moderate to high levels of anthropogenic disturbance including water table perturbations or other destructive actions or in man-made habitats (e.g. borrow pits). The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be poor to excellent to receive a "D" rank. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at the rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next higher rank. (Reznicek, A. A. 1997. Pers. comm. with B. Nichols.)
Justification: A Rank: Populations have exceeded 1000 plants at two sites in Pennsylvania along the margins of high-plateau white pine-hemlock-mixed hardwood swamps inundated as a result of beaver activity. However, habitat size and diversity and continuation of dynamic ecosystem processes may be more important than the actual number of plants present at one instant in time. In larger habitats, the plant is more likely to survive periods without the appropriate perturbations, either in the seed bank or as scattered individuals in small disturbance patches like trails, blowdowns, or small beaver floodings (Reznicek pers. comm. 1997). Occurrences not meeting landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size may fall to a lower rank, at the discretion of the surveyor. In general, population size and availability of suitable habitat are the primary factors influencing the rank of this Element.

C Rank: EOs not reaching CRANKSPECS often occur in degraded habitats and are not likely to survive for extended periods due to low viability and susceptibility to extirpation from stochastic events.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 15Mar1997
Author: B. Nichols
Notes: NHNHP
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Jul2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec
Management Information Edition Date: 10Dec1990
Management Information Edition Author: WAYNE R. OSTLIE
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.; W. OSTILE (1990)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anonymous. 2003. Conservation Assessment for Wiegand's Sedge (Carex wiegandii). Prepared fro USDA Forest Service, Region 9 (Eastern Region). Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/plants.html.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.) 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. Four parts. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Botany Division, Ottawa. Looseleaf.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Crispin, S. and M. Penskar. 1990. Carex wiegandii Mackenzie. Unpublished abstracts, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Endangered Species Manual. 2 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mackenzie, K.K. 1931-1935. Cariceae. North American Flora 18: 1-478.

  • Mackenzie, K.K. 1931. Flora of North America. New York Botanical Gardens, New York, New York.

  • Mackenzie, K.K. 1931. Flora of North America. New York Botanical Gardens, New York, New York. A31MAC01PAUS.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Nichols, W.F. 2002. Carex wiegandii (Wiegand's Sedge) Plant Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. (http://www.newfs.org/docs/pdf/Carexwiegandii.pdf).

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Reznicek, A.A. 2002. Carex Linnaeus sect. Stellulate Kunth. Pages 326-331 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (editors), Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Volume 23, Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA. 608pp + xxiv.

  • Reznicek, A.A. and P.W. Ball. 1980. The taxonomy of Carex section Stellulatae in North America north of Mexico. Contr. Unw. Mich. Herb. 14:153-203.

  • Reznicek, A.A. and P.W. Ball. 1980. The taxonomy of Carex section Stellulatae in North American north of Mexico. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 14: 153-203.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA. 636 pp.

  • Rothrock, P. E. 1978. Carex wiegandii MacKenzie (Cyperaceae): New for Pennsylvania. Rhodora 80(823): 451

  • Rothrock, P.E. 1978. Carex wiegandii Mackenzie (Cyperaceae) New for Pennsylvania. Rhodora 80:451. A78ROT01PAUS.

  • USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. 2003. Conservation Assessment for Wiegand's Sedge (Carex wiegandii). Escanaba, Michigan, 23 pp.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

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Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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