Buteo platypterus - (Vieillot, 1823)
Broad-winged Hawk
Other English Common Names: broad-winged hawk
Other Common Names: Gavião-de-Asa-Larga
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Buteo platypterus (Vieillot, 1823) (TSN 175365)
French Common Names: petite buse
Spanish Common Names: Aguililla Ala Ancha, Gavilán Pollero
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100789
Element Code: ABNKC19050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11001

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae Buteo
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Buteo platypterus
Taxonomic Comments: Closely related to B. magnirostris, B. ridgwayi, and B. lineatus (AOU 1998). Validity of subspecies brunnescens is questionable; few data are available (Banks 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 22Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species continues to be common in many parts of its range and does not appear particularly vulnerable at this time relative to many other bird species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4B), Arizona (S2M), Arkansas (S4B), California (SNA), Colorado (S5B), Connecticut (S4B), Delaware (S1B), District of Columbia (S1B,S4N), Florida (SNRB,SNRN), Georgia (S4), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S3B), Iowa (S3B), Kansas (S1B), Kentucky (S4B), Louisiana (S4B), Maine (S5B), Maryland (S4B), Massachusetts (S5B,S5N), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S4S5B), Missouri (S3), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SU), New Hampshire (S5B), New Jersey (S3B), New Mexico (S4N), New York (S5B), North Carolina (S4B), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S4B), Pennsylvania (S5B), Rhode Island (S4B), South Carolina (S4), South Dakota (S2B), Tennessee (S4B), Texas (S3B), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S4B), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S3B), Wisconsin (S5B)
Canada Alberta (S3B), British Columbia (S3?B), Manitoba (S4S5B), New Brunswick (S5B,S5M), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (S5B), Ontario (S5B), Quebec (S5B), Saskatchewan (S4B,S3M), Yukon Territory (SUB)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Subspecies brunnescens of Puerto Rico is listed by USFWS as Endangered (Federal Register, 9 September 1994).
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: central Alberta and central Saskatchewan and from central Manitoba to Nova Scotia, south to Gulf Coast. NORTHERN WINTER: mainly southern Florida and from Guatemala south to Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. RESIDENT in West Indies (Cuba, Antigua south to Grenada and Tobago, very local in Puerto Rico (see files for subspecies BRUNNESCENS). Occurs in the western U.S. in migration.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Birdlife International (2014) estimtaed the extent of occurrence for breeding at 4.86 million square kilometers

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: The population size is very large (Birdlife International, 2014) and there were an estimated 1.7 million in one flock during migration (Goodrich and Crocoll, 2014). With these data, it would be impossible for there to be fewer than 3000 EOs.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Number of breeding pairs in Canada in the early 1990s was estimated at 500,000-1,000,000 by Kirk et al. (1995). There was a migration count of 1.7 million birds in Mexico in 2001 (Goodrich and Crocell, 2014).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: This species undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (Birdlife International, 2014). Consequently, it must have more than 125 good EOs with good viability in order to number in the millions.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: There are certain subspecies of this bird taht are endangered such as the West Indies race due to clearing of virgin forests but overall there are few specific threats to this species (Goodrich and Crocoll, 2014).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Depending on the source, the population may be increasing or decreasing globally. As of 1989, most southern states estiimated a stable population (Goodrich and Crocell, 2014). May be decreasing in the northeastern U.S. (Bednarz et al. 1990). There was a downward trend in migration counts in northeastern North America, 1972-1987, according to one analytical method (Titus and Fuller 1990). Apparently stable in Canada, though possibly declining in eastern Canada (Kirk et al. 1995). The species may be increasing at 1.6% per year in less-developed regions of the northeastern US. but decreasing at 1.1% inthe more developed regions (Goodrich and Crocell, 2014).

Long-term Trend: Increase of >25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Birdlife International (2014) reports a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America of 74.3% over 40 years or a 14.9% increase per decade.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Not at this time

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Reforestation seems to have taken care of the earlier declines of this species.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Research that is focused on inventorying and validating population survey methods is needed for this and other woodland raptors (Goodrich and Crocoll, 2014).

Protection Needs: Protect Caribbean habitats for this species. Also needed may be protection of forest patches along this species migration routes (Goodrich and Crocoll, 2014).

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: central Alberta and central Saskatchewan and from central Manitoba to Nova Scotia, south to Gulf Coast. NORTHERN WINTER: mainly southern Florida and from Guatemala south to Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. RESIDENT in West Indies (Cuba, Antigua south to Grenada and Tobago, very local in Puerto Rico (see files for subspecies BRUNNESCENS). Occurs in the western U.S. in migration.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009), Tolland (09013), Windham (09015)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
IA Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055), Dubuque (19061), Fremont (19071)
IN Allen (18003), Brown (18013), Crawford (18025), De Kalb (18033), Dubois (18037), Fulton (18049), Jackson (18071), Jefferson (18077), La Porte (18091), Lagrange (18087), Lawrence (18093), Marion (18097), Martin (18101), Monroe (18105), Montgomery (18107), Morgan (18109), Noble (18113), Ohio (18115), Orange (18117), Parke (18121), Perry (18123), Pike (18125), Porter (18127), St. Joseph (18141), Switzerland (18155), Tippecanoe (18157), Wabash (18169)
KS Douglas (20045), Johnson (20091), Leavenworth (20103), Wilson (20205), Wyandotte (20209)
MO New Madrid (29143), Reynolds (29179)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011), Gloucester (34015), Hunterdon (34019), Morris (34027), Ocean (34029), Passaic (34031), Somerset (34035), Sussex (34037)
SD Hughes (46065)*, Lawrence (46081), Lincoln (46083), Roberts (46109), Stanley (46117)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Shetucket (01100002)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Choptank (02060005)+*, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+
05 Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Salamonie (05120102)+, Eel (05120104)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Sugar (05120110)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Kankakee (07120001)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+
10 Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+*, Redwater (10120203)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Nishnabotna (10240004)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+, Upper Verdigris (11070101)+, Fall (11070102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Egg dates: peaks mid- to late May in the northeastern U.S., early to mid-May in the southeastern U.S.; see Palmer (1988) for full range of dates and further details. Clutch size usually is 2-3. Incubation lasts 30-38 days, normally by female only (male may cover eggs briefly), male brings food to female. In central Alberta, average hatching date was 2 July (Rusch and Doerr 1972). Young tended by both parents, leave nest at 29-31 days (perhaps older in undisturbed nests), capable of sustained horizontal flight at 5-6 weeks, depend on adults until 50-56 days old. First breeds usually at 2 years, some as yearlings (Palmer 1988). At least some birds pair with same mate in successive years. See Crocoll and Parker (1989) for information on breeding biology in western New York.
Ecology Comments: Solitary in winter, maintains feeding territory. In the West Indies, common only where red-tailed hawk (BUTEO JAMAICENSIS) does not occur (Wiley 1985).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Generally arrives in northern breeding areas mid-April through early May, departs by September-October (Bent 1937). Southward migration peaks late September-early October in Texas, mostly in October in Panama. Northward migration peaks in mid-March in Panama, late March-early April in southern Texas. Migration encompasses about 2 months each year. Usually migrates in large groups, in areas with favorable updrafts; avoids crossing large bodies of water. In North America in fall, most movement occurs on days with wind between WNW and NNE, surface wind below 12 mph, atmospheric pressure rising, and 24-hour temperature dropping; in spring, virtually all movement is on south winds on the southeastern side of low pressure system moving east ahead of a cold front. See Palmer (1988) for map of migration routes and many further details on migration.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: BREEDING: Broadleaf and mixed forest, preferring denser situations, less frequently in open woodland. Generally perches under or in tree canopy, forages at openings, edges, and wet areas (Palmer 1988). Regularly nests near wet areas and forest openings, edges, and woodland roads. Typically nests in crotch of moderate- to large-sized tree or on branch next to trunk, about 7-12 m above ground, in bottom 1/3 of forest canopy. May modify nest of other bird or squirrel; usually does not use same nest in 2 successive years. Presence of fresh greenery typical of completed nest (Palmer 1988). NON-BREEDING: Migrates along ridges, river valleys, and shorelines. In winter, may perch and feed along heavily traveled highways. In Costa Rica, prefers open areas, forest edge, broken forest (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Opportunistic; eats various small vertebrates (small mammals, birds, snakes, frogs, etc.) and large invertebrates (see Palmer 1988 for details); typically hunts from perch on stub or dead limb of tree, typically at clearing, along woodland road, forest edge, or at margin of seasonal and permanent waters. Consumes little or no food during migration.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 41 centimeters
Weight: 490 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Monitoring Requirements: Broadcast vocalizations make it possible to detect hawks that may be missed by simple looking or listening (Fuller and Mosher 1987, Balding and Dibble 1984).
Biological Research Needs: Research needs include the population ecology of the Caribbean subspecies and its distinction from continental subspecies. Long-term studies of marked pairs are espepcially needed. Winder distribution, behavior, and ecology is poorly known (Goodrich and Crocoll, 2014).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hawks and Falcons

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: If nest site is separated from feeding area by more than 100 meters, map as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance a compromise between usually relatively small home ranges and obvious mobility of these birds. Home ranges variable, ranging from about 0.5 to about 90 square kilometers; the latter figure refers to nests where birds commuted some distance to feeding grounds. A number of studies give mean home ranges on the order of 7 square kilometers, which equates to a circle with a diameter of about 3 kilometers; three times that home range gives a separation distance of about 10 kilometers. Home ranges: Ferruginous Hawk, mean 5.9 square kilometers in Utah (Smith and Murphy 1973); range 2.4 to 21.7 square kilometers, mean 7.0 square kilometers in Idaho (Olendorff 1993); mean 7.6 square kilometers in Idaho (McAnnis 1990); mean 90 square kilometers in Washington (Leary et al. 1998); Red-tailed Hawk, most forage within 3 kilometers of nest (Kochert 1986); mean spring and summer male home ranges 148 hectares (Petersen 1979); Hawaiian Hawk, 48 to 608 hectares (n = 16; Clarkson and Laniawe 2000); Zone-tailed Hawk, little information, apparent home range 1-2 kilometers/pair in west Texas (Johnson et al. 2000); White tailed Kite, rarely hunts more than 0.8 kilometers from nest (Hawbecker 1942); Prairie Falcon, 26 square kilometers in Wyoming (Craighead and Craighead 1956), 59 to 314 square kilometers (reported by Steenhof 1998); Aplomado Falcon, 2.6 to 9.0 square kilometers (n = 5, Hector 1988), 3.3 to 21.4 square kilometers (n = 10, Montoya et al. 1997). Nest site fidelity: high in Zone-tailed Hawk; all seven west Texas nesting territories occupied in 1975 were reused in 1976 (Matteson and Riley 1981). Swainson's Hawk: In California, dispersal distances from natal sites to subsequent breeding sites ranged from 0 to 18 kilometers, mean 8.8 kilometers (Woodbridge et al. 1995); in contrast, none of 697 nestlings in Saskatchewan returned to the study area; three were found 190, 200 and 310 kilometers away (Houston and Schmutz 1995).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Foraging range variable; 3 kilometers is the mean diameter in several species.
Date: 13Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering birds (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, usually minimally a reliable observation of 5 birds (this can be reduced to 1 individual for rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. However, occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Mar2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Sep1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fraser, D.F., W.L. Harper, S.G. Cannings, and J.M. Cooper. 1999. Rare birds of British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch and Resour. Inventory Branch, Victoria, BC. 244pp.

  • Fuller, M. R., and J. A. Mosher. 1987. Raptor survey techniques. Pages 37-65 in B. A. Giron Pendleton, et al., eds. Raptor management techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

  • Gauthier, J., and Y. Aubry (editors). 1996. The breeding birds of Quebec. Atlas of the breeding birds of southern Quebec. Association quebecoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Province of Quebec Society for the Protection of Birds, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Quebec Region, Montreal, 1302 pp.

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