Anaxyrus fowleri - (Hinckley, 1882)
Fowler's Toad
Other English Common Names: Fowler's toad
Synonym(s): Bufo fowleri Hinckley, 1882 ;Bufo woodhousii fowleri Hinckley, 1882
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anaxyrus fowleri (Hinckley, 1882) (TSN 773520)
French Common Names: crapaud de Fowler
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102732
Element Code: AAABB01210
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Anaxyrus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Sullivan, B. K., K. B. Malmos, and M. F. Given. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia 1996:274-280.
Concept Reference Code: A96SUL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bufo fowleri
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in Bufo woodhousii. Sullivan et al. (1996) examined advertisement call variation and concluded that B. fowleri should be recognized as a distinct species and that subspecies australis and woodhousii should continue to be regarded as western forms of the B. woodhousii complex.

Hybridizes with Bufo americanus in some areas (Green and Parent 2003).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 11Oct2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in eastern North America; large area of occupancy; high abundance; many stable populations; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (24Oct1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (22Jan2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Connecticut (S4), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (S4), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S5), New Hampshire (S3), New Jersey (S3), New York (S4), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4?), Pennsylvania (S3S4), Rhode Island (S3), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (25Apr2010)
Comments on COSEWIC: Designated Special Concern in April 1986. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in April 1999. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 2010.

This species only occurs on sandy beaches in three disjunct areas along the north shore of Lake Erie. It has disappeared from numerous historic sites on the Lake Erie shore and continues to decline in abundance and number of populations with further habitat loss and degradation due to invasive species (Common Reed, Zebra Mussels) and anthropogenic activities including shoreline development, beach cleaning, construction of breakwalls, bulldozing of beaches, vehicle use on beaches and agricultural and industrial contaminants. In addition, a Population Viability Analysis (PVA) model suggests that over the last decade, the probability of extirpation within 20 years has increased substantially.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Fowler's toad occurs throughout most of the eastern United States and the northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada, from southeastern Iowa to southern New Hampshire, and south to eastern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and northern Florida (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from northern New England and the Florida peninsula.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range.

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but surely exceeds 100,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Locally threatened by various kinds of habitat destruction and degradation.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: See Green (1986 COSEWIC report) for information on Canadian populations (locally common but local declines noted).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Likely relatively stable in extent of occurrence, unknown level of decline in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences, but better information is needed for Mexico.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Fowler's toad occurs throughout most of the eastern United States and the northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada, from southeastern Iowa to southern New Hampshire, and south to eastern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and northern Florida (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from northern New England and the Florida peninsula.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NH Grafton (33009), Hillsborough (33011)*, Merrimack (33013)
NJ Bergen (34003), Morris (34027), Passaic (34031), Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
PA Bucks (42017), Chester (42029), Delaware (42045), Montgomery (42091), Westmoreland (42129)
VT Windham (50025), Windsor (50027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070006)+, White (01080105)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+
05 Conemaugh (05010007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
General Description: The upper surface is brown, grayish, or rarely greenish or red, with a pattern of large dark blotches, the largest of which contain 3 or more warts. Usually there is a light stripe along the middle of the back. The hard ridges behind the eyes contact the patotoid glands (large glandular swellings behind the eyes). The parotoid glands are about twice as long as wide. Maximum snout-vent length is around 3.8 inches (9.5 cm); females grow much larger than males. Mature male can be recognized during breeding season by their dark throat and dark patches present on the inner surfaces of thefirst and second toes of the front feet. The male's expanded vocal sac is spherical or slightly elongated. Breeding calls are loud waaaaaah sounds lasting about 1-4 seconds and emitted up to several times per minute. Larvae are dark brown to black and often mottled. The eyes are positioned high on the head. The fins are mainly clear with sparse pigment flecks, with more in the upper fin than in the lower. Larvae reach a maximum total length up to around 1.1 inches (2.7 cm). Eggs are black above, tan below, 1.0-1.5 mm in diameter; they are deposited in long strings in a single jelly envelope, with single or double row of eggs in each jelly string.
Reproduction Comments: Breeding occurs in spring or summer (timing varies geographically), often after heavy rains. Male breeding choruses may last a few weeks. Individual females lay clutches of thousands of eggs in long strings. Larvae hatch within about a week and metamorphose into tiny toadlets in 1-2 months. Individuals become sexually mature in 2 years in Indiana (Breden 1988); 2 (males) to 3 (females) years in Connecticut (Clark 1975, Can. J. Zool. 52:1489-1498). At Long Point, Ontario, among 53 mature males, 14 were one year old, 25 were two years old, 13 were three years old, and 1 was 4 years old; possibly some one-year-old females were mature (Kellner and Green 1995, J. Herpetol. 29:485-489).
Ecology Comments: This and other toads have toxic skin secretions that help protect them from predation, but skunks and raccoons often eat them without ill effect by avoiding the skin and parotid glands. Hognose snakes (Heterodon) are immune to the toxins and swallow toads whole.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates up to several hundred meters between breeding pools and adjacent nonbreeding terrestrial habitats.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Fowler's toads inhabit wooded areas, river valleys, and floodplains, including agricultural and residential areas, usually in areas with deep friable soils, up to at least several hundred meters from breeding sites. During cold weather or drought, they burrow underground or hide under rocks, plants, or other cover. Breeding sites include shallow water of marshes, rain pools, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, flooded areas, and other bodies of water lacking a strong current.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed toads eat mainly various small terrestrial arthropods. Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: These toads are inactive during the cold months of fall, winter, and early spring. Most activity is nocturnal, but daytime activity is not uncommon.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Bufonid Toads

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that toads rarely if ever cross successfully; roads with nonpermeable barriers to toad movement; urbanized areas dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Opportunistic observations of various toad species in lowland habitats indicate regular movements of up to at least several hundred meters from the closest known breeding site (G. Hammerson, pers. obs.). Sweet (1993) recorded movements of up to 1 km in Bufo californicus. In defining critical habitat for B. californicus, USFWS (2000) included breeding streams and upland areas within a 25-m elevational range of each essential stream reach and no more than 1.5 km away from the stream. In northwestern Utah, Thompson (2004) recorded movements of Bufo boreas of up to 5 km across upland habitat between two springs during the summer-fall season. Another toad moved 1.3 km between May of one year and May of the next year; the following June it was back at the original breeding location (Thompson 2004). Most studies of toad movements have not employed radiotelemetry and were not designed to detect long-range movements or dispersal.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the good vagility of toads, their ability to utilize ephemeral or newly created breeding sites, and the consequent likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 27Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Barbour, R. W. 1971. Amphibians and reptiles of Kentucky. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 334 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Breden, F. 1988. Natural history and ecology of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Amphibia: Bufonidae), in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Fieldiana Zoll., New Ser. No. 49:1-16.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1969. "Who cares for the Fowler's Toad?" The Ontario Naturalist 1969(4): 24-27.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1977. Some threatened frogs and toads in Ontario. Pp. 130-131, in, T. Mosquin and C. Suchal (eds.) Canada's Threatened Species and Habitats. Proceedings of the Symposium on Canada's Threatened Species and Habitats co-sponsored by the Canadian Nature Federation and the World Wildlife Fund (Canada) held in Ottawa, May 20-24, 1976. x + 185 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1978. Some threatened frogs and toads in Ontario. Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Society Bulletin 16(2): 1-2.

  • Clarke, R. D. 1974. Activity and movement patterns in a population of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousii fowleri. American Midland Naturalist 92:257-274.

  • Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.

  • Collins, J.T., R. Conant, J.E. Huheey, J.L. Knight, E.M. Rundquist and H.M. Smith. 1982. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians and Reptiles, 2nd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 12. 28 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • Cook, F. R. 1984. Introduction to Canadian amphibians and reptiles. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Crother, B. I. (ed.). 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding: Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 94 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • DeGraaf, R. M., and D. D. Rudis. 1983a. Amphibians and reptiles of New England. Habitats and natural history. Univ. Massachusetts Press. vii + 83 pp.

  • Dobbyn, S. 2005. A Preliminary Assessment of the Fowler's Toad (Bufo fowleri) Population in Rondeau Provincial Park. Rondeau Provincial Park, 21 pp.

  • Dundee, H. A., and D. A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

  • Froom, B. 1982. Amphibians of Canada. McClelland and Stewart Limited, Toronto. 120 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 2011. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.5 (31 January, 2011). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/ American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  • Frost, D. R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. V2.21 (15 July 2002). Electronic database available at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

  • Frost, D. R. 2010. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  • Frost, D.R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. Bain, A. Haas, C.F.B. Haddad, R.O. de SaŽ, S.C. Donnellan, C.J. Raxworthy, M. Wilkinson, A. Channing, J.A. Campbell, B.L. Blotto, P. Moler, R.C. Drewes, R.A. Nussbaum, J.D. Lynch, D. Green, and W.C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-370. [Available online at http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/5781 ]

  • Green, D. M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia 1984:18-26.

  • Green, D. M. 1986c. Status report on the Fowler's Toad, BUFO WOODHOUSII FOWLERI, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Ottawa, Ontario. 42 pp.

  • Green, D. M., and C. Parent. 2003. Variable and asymmetric introgression in a hybrid zone in the toads, Bufo americanus and Bufo fowleri. Copeia 2003:34-43.

  • Green, D.M. (2000). A Population Viability Analysis of Fowler's Toad, Bufo fowleri, in Canada. Addendum to COSEWIC Status Report Update. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 19 pp.

  • Green, D.M. 1981. Theoretical analysis of hybrid zones derived from an examination of two dissimilar zones of hybridization in toads (genus Bufo). Ph.D. Thesis. University fo Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.

  • Green, D.M. 1982. Mating call characteristics of hybrid toads (Bufo americanus X B. fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 3293-3297.

  • Green, D.M. 1983. The status of Bufo woodhousii fowleri (Fowler's Toad) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Unpublished report.

  • Green, D.M. 1985. The biology and population status of Bufo woodhousii fowleri (Fowler's Toad) in Canada. Final Report. Submitted to COSEWIC, Ottawa, and World Wildlife Fund, Toronto, Ontario. 42 pp.

  • Green, D.M. 1989. Fowler's Toad, Bufo woodhousii fowleri, in Canada: Biology and population status. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(4): 486-496.

  • Green, D.M. 1989. The toads of Long Point: A tale of two species. Long Point Bird Observatory Newsletter 22(2): 17.

  • Green, D.M. 1992. Fowler's Toads at Long Point, Ontario: Changing abundance and implications for conservation. Pp. 37-43, in, C.A. Bishop and K.E. Pettit (eds.) Declines in Canadian amphibian populations: designing a national monitoring strategy. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Occasional Paper Number 76.

  • Green, D.M. 1993. Six years of Fowler's Toads at Long Point, Ontario. Paper presented at DAPCAN III - Third Annual Meeting of the Task force on Declining Amphibian Populations in Canada, held 15-18 October 1993, at the Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia.

  • Green, D.M. 1994. Fowler's Toads ups and downs. Paper presented at DAPCAN IV - Fourth Annual Meeting of the Task Force on Declining Amphibian Populations in Canada, held 1-3 October 1994, at Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Green, D.M. 1995. Age, size, and population density in Fowler's toads, Bufo woodhousei fowleri: How much do we know about amphibian abundance? Paper presented at the 75th American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists meeting.

  • Green, D.M. 1997. Temporal variation in abundance and age structure in Fowler's Toads, BUFO FOWLERI, at Long Point, Ontario. Pages 45-56, in "Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem", edited by D.M. Green. Herpetological Conservation 1. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  • Green, D.M. 1997. Temporal variation in abundance and age structure in fowler's toads, Bufo fowleri, at Long Point, Ontario. Pp. 45-56, in, Amphibians in decline: Canadian studies of a global problem. Herpetological Conservation, Volume 1, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.. xii + 338 pp.

  • Green, D.M. 1998. Status Report Update on Fowler's Toad, BUFO FOWLERI, in Canada. Unpublished report, Amphibian and Reptile Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 16 pp.

  • Green, D.M. [1996] Temporal variation in abundance and age structure in Fowler's Toads (Bufo fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario. In, D.M. Green (ed.) Amphibians in Decline: Reports from the Canadian Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force. Herpetological Conservation, SSAR.

  • Green, D.M. and D. Cantin. 1990. Spring emergence and breeding activity of Fowler's Toads Bufo woodhousii fowleri at Long Point, Ontario, in 1989. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Unpublished report. 25 pp.

  • Green, D.M. and E.J.B. McTavish. 2005. Population ecology of Fowler's Toad (Bufo fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario. Field Report for 2004, Redpath Museum, McGill University, 20 pp.

  • Green, D.M. and H.S.C. Tang. 1994. Breeding activity and growth rate in Fowler's Toads (Bufo woodhousii fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario in 1993. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Unpublished report. 25 pp.

  • Green, D.M. and Z.S. Porebski. 1991. Breeding activity of Fowler's Toads, Bufo woodhousii fowleri, at Long Point, Ontario, in 1990. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Unpublished report. 20 pp.

  • Green, D.M., A. Vallachovic, J. Tambasco and A. Kelner. 1993. Spring emergence, age structure, and abundance of Fowler's Toads, Bufo woodhousii fowleri, at Long Point, Ontario, in 1992. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Unpublished report. 28 pp.

  • Green, D.M., C.W. Zeyl and A. El-Yassir. 1991. Spring emergence and abundance of Fowler's Toads, Bufo woodhousii fowleri, at Long Point, Ontario, in 1991: Implications for conservation. Prepared for Canadian Wildlife Service, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Unpublished report. 33 pp.

  • Green, David M. and M. Alex Smith. 2000. Ecology and Viability of Fowler's Toads (Bufo fowleri) Populations: A Report for the World Wildife Fund Endangered Species Recovery Fund. Redpath Museum, McGill University (unpublished). 35 pp.

  • Green,D.M. 1986. Status report on the Fowler's Toad (Bufo woodhousii fowleri) in Canada. COSEWIC.

  • Hammerson, G. 2001. EO Specs for Bufonid Toads (ELCODE AAABB00001). NatureServe, unpublished. 2 pp.

  • Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Public Education Series 6: ix + 134 pp.

  • Judd, W.W. 1974. Vignettes of Nature in Southern Ontario. Carleton Press Inc., New York, N.Y.

  • Laurin, G. and D.M. Green. 1990. Spring emergence and male chorus behaviour in Fowler's Toads, Bufo woodhousii fowleri, at Long Point, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104(3): 429-434.

  • Leary, C.J. 2001. Investigating opposing patterns of character displacement in release and advertisment vocalizations of Bufo fowleri and Bufo americanus (Anura; Bufonidea). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1577-1585.

  • Meacham, W.R. 1962. Factors affecting secondary intergradation between two allopatric populations in the Bufo woodhousii complex. American Midland Naturalist 67: 282-304.

  • Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1995. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Fowler's Toad (BUFO WOODHOUSEI FOWLERI). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO). 7 pp.

  • Oldham, M.J. and M.J. Austen. 1999. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Fowler's Toad (BUFO FOWLERI). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO). 5 pp. + 4 appendices

  • Oldham, M.J., M.J. Austen, and A.E. Zammit. 2000. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Fowler's Toad (Bufo fowleri). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario (October 2000). 9 pp. + 5 appendices.

  • Preston, W. B. 1982. The amphibians and reptiles of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 128 pp.

  • Sanders, O. 1986. The heritage of Bufo woodhousei Girard in Texas. Baylor Univ., Occas. Pap. Strecker Mus. No. 1. 28 pp.

  • Sanders, O. 1987. Evolutionary hybridization and speciation in North American indigenous bufonids. Strecker Museum, Baylor Univ., Waco, Texas. 110 pp.

  • Schneider, D. 1995. Hey, neighbour. Seasons: 16-23.

  • Smith, M. Alex and David M. Green. 2006. Sex, isolation and fidelity: unbiased long-distance dispersal in a terrestrial amphibian. Ecography 29: 649-658.

  • Smith, M.A. and D.M. Green. 2002. Bufo fowleri (Fowler's Toad). Predation.. Herpetological Review 33(2):125.

  • Smith, M.A. and D.M. Green. 2004. Phylogeography of Bufo fowleri at its northern range limit. Molecular Ecology 13: 37233733.

  • Species at Risk Branch. 2002. Species at risk range maps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Online. Available: http://www.sis.ec.gc.ca/download_e.htm.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stille, W. T. 1952. The nocturnal amphibian fauna of the southern Lake Michigan beach. Ecology 33:149-162.

  • Sullivan, B. K. and T. Lamb. 1988. Hybridization between the toads Bufo microscaphus and Bufo woodhousii in Arizona: variation in release calls and allozymes. Herpetologica 44:325-333.

  • Sullivan, B. K., K. B. Malmos, and M. F. Given. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia 1996:274-280.

  • Sullivan, B.K., K.B. Malmos, and M.F. Given. 1996. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation. Copeia 1996(2): 274-280.

  • Tupper, T.A., R.P. Cook, B.C. Timm, A. Goodstine. 2007. Improving calling surveys for detecting Fowlers toad, Bufo fowleri, in southern New England, USA. Applied Herpetology 4: 245-259.

  • Wake (Cairns), W. 1994. A camouflage expert. Nature Canada (Summer 1994): 49.

  • Warwick, P. 2002. Builder makes way for toads. Seasons, 42(4):12.

  • Weller, W. F., and D. M. Green. 1997. Checklist and current status of Canadian amphibians. Pages 309-328 in D. M. Green, editor. Amphibians in decline: Canadian studies of a global problem. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Conservation 1.

  • Weller, W. F., and M. J. Oldham. 1988. Ontario Herpetofaunal Summary: 1986. Ontario Field Herpetologists. Cambridge, Ontario. 221 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.