Bucephala clangula - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Goldeneye
Other English Common Names: common goldeneye
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175141)
French Common Names: garrot à oeil d'or
Spanish Common Names: Pato Chillón
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101051
Element Code: ABNJB18010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 10658

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Bucephala
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bucephala clangula
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S5B,S4N), Arizona (S5N), Arkansas (S4N), California (SNRN), Colorado (S5N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S4), Idaho (S5B,S5N), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S4N), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (S4N), Kentucky (S3N), Louisiana (S3N), Maine (S5B,S5N), Maryland (S5N), Massachusetts (S5N), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNRB,SNRM), Mississippi (S4N), Missouri (SNRN), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S4N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S5N), New York (S3,SNRN), North Carolina (S3N), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (SNRN), Oregon (S4N), Pennsylvania (S4N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4N), Utah (S3S4N), Vermont (S2B,S5N), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S5N), West Virginia (S3N), Wisconsin (S2S3B), Wyoming (S3B)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S5B,S5M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S5M,S4N), Newfoundland Island (S4), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S2B,S5N), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5N), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5B,S3M,S3N), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: Eurasia; North America, western and central Alaska, Mackenzie Delta, east to southern Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, south to northern Washington, central Montana, northern North Dakota, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, northern New York, northern Vermont, Maine. WINTERS: Eurasia, to Mediterranean, southern China; in North America, Aleutians and southeastern Alaska to southern California, Great Lakes through the Ohio and Mississippi valleys to the Gulf Coast, St. Lawrence River and Nova Scotia to Florida, and inland national wildlife refuges (e.g., Browns Park in Colorado and Mundt in South Dakota) (Root 1988).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: Eurasia; North America, western and central Alaska, Mackenzie Delta, east to southern Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, south to northern Washington, central Montana, northern North Dakota, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan, northern New York, northern Vermont, Maine. WINTERS: Eurasia, to Mediterranean, southern China; in North America, Aleutians and southeastern Alaska to southern California, Great Lakes through the Ohio and Mississippi valleys to the Gulf Coast, St. Lawrence River and Nova Scotia to Florida, and inland national wildlife refuges (e.g., Browns Park in Colorado and Mundt in South Dakota) (Root 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Nez Perce (16069), Power (16077)
ND Benson (38005), Bottineau (38009), Griggs (38039), McHenry (38049), Nelson (38063), Ramsey (38071), Rolette (38079), Walsh (38099)
NH Coos (33007)
VT Grand Isle (50013)
WA Mason (53045)+
WI Ashland (55003), Burnett (55013), Door (55029), Vilas (55125)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+
09 Lower Souris (09010003)+, Willow (09010004)+, Deep (09010005)+, Devils Lake (09020201)+, Upper Sheyenne (09020202)+, Middle Sheyenne (09020203)+, Forest (09020308)+, Park (09020310)+, Upper Pembina River (09020315)+
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Clear (10090206)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Lance (10120104)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Hood Canal (17110018)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Diagnostic Characteristics: See Tobish (1987) for details on identification of Barrow's and common goldeneyes in all plumages.
Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins in early May in south, June in north. Clutch size is 5-19 (usually 8-12). Incubation, by female, lasts 28-32 days (Terres 1980; Ziucs et al. 1995, Condor 97:461-472). Nestlings are precocial and downy. Young are tended by female, can fly at 51-60 days (Harrison 1978).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward February-March, southward to wintering areas October-November.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Ponds, lakes, rivers and coastal bays, wintering primarily in bays and estuaries, less commonly on rivers and lakes (AOU 1983). Nests usually near pond, lake, or river, but may nest in woodland up to a mile from water. May nest in natural tree cavity in large hardwood tree, in abandoned woodpecker hole, or nest-box. Often nests in same area in successive years. May "prospect" for future nest sites at end of breeding season.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: In inland areas during the summer and fall, feeds on aquatic insects, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Along coastal wintering grounds feeds largely on crustaceans, mollusks, small fishes, and some plant material (Bellrose 1976).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 47 centimeters
Weight: 1000 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Apr1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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