Brosimum alicastrum - Sw.
Breadnut
Other Common Names: breadnut
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Brosimum alicastrum Sw. (TSN 19075)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134961
Element Code: PDMOR02010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mulberry Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Urticales Moraceae Brosimum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brosimum alicastrum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widely distributed in various habitats. Found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and into South America as far as Guyana and Acre, Brazil (Berg 1972). Occurs in Chiapas, Mexico in the tall green or sub-deciduous forests where dense groupings are formed; and in limestone regions (Miranda in Mills 1957). Considered one of the dominant species of the forest of northern PetÚn, Guatemala (Lundell in Mills 1957). Introduced to and possibly naturalized in southern Florida, US (Berg 1972).
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: From the state of Sonora, Mexico through Central America (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama) the Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Saint Vincent, The Grenadines, Carriacou, Trinidad), and extending in South America through Colombia and Venezuela to Guyana; through Ecuador and Peru and to Acre, Brazil (Berg 1972). Introduced, and possibly naturalized, to south Florida.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The timber serves many purposes (Tree Talk 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: From the state of Sonora, Mexico through Central America (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama) the Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Saint Vincent, The Grenadines, Carriacou, Trinidad), and extending in South America through Colombia and Venezuela to Guyana; through Ecuador and Peru and to Acre, Brazil (Berg 1972). Introduced, and possibly naturalized, to south Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Tree to 35 m tall, Moraceae.
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Habitat Comments: Tall green or sub-deciduous forests; and in limestone regions (Miranda in Mills 1957). Dry habitats but also seasonally flooded places near rivers or in swampy places, near ruins of ancient sites; evergreen, semi-evergreen, or deciduous tropical forests, cloud forests (Berg 1972).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Commercial Importance: Indigenous crop
Economic Uses: FOOD, Seed/nut, FORAGE/BROWSE, FIBER, Building materials/timber
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: The seed kernels are very nutritious, in food value they compare favorably with maize. Their percentage of essential amino acids is higher than maize, especially triptophane. The leaves are good cattle forage (the Spanish name "ramon" means browse for forage). This species is abundant near Maya ruins. It appears certain that the Maya Indians deliberately planted this species as an important alternative food. It has been suggested that this species played a key role in sustaining human population densities in the Maya civilization of 300-900 A.D. (Brucher 1989). Known as a timber species in Costa Rica (Alvarez 1991). The sapwood is suitable for veneers and miscellaneous purposes not requiring resistance to decay. However, heartwood of very limited commercial possibilities because of its small size and scarcity (Record and Hess 1943 in Mills 1957). Commonly used for factory, light, heavy and building contruction, cabinetmaking, chairs, decorative and figured veneer, desks, domestic flooring, fine, rustic and utility furniture and furniture components, handles/shafts, sub-flooring and tables (Tree Talk 1994).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Aug1992
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Blythe, K. (TNC-LASP)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jul1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JASTER, T. (TNC-LASP)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alvarez, Luis and Jorge Poveda. 1991. Arboles Maderables Nativos de Costa Rica. Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. San JosÚ, Costa Rica.

  • Berg, C. C. 1972. Olmedieae, Brosimeae (Moraceae). Organization for Flora Neotropica: Hafner Publishing Company, New York. 229 pp.

  • Brucher, H. 1989. Useful Plants of Neotropical Origin and Their Wild Relatives. Springer-Verlag. New York. 296 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mills, T.H. 1957. Timber Trees of Northern Chiapas. Mexico, D.F.

  • Woods of the World Compact (IBM Windows), [CD-ROM]. (1994). Available: Tree Talk.

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