Bromus sterilis - L.
Poverty Brome
Other Common Names: poverty brome
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bromus sterilis L. (TSN 40522)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131955
Element Code: PMPOA151F0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Bromus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bromus sterilis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (30Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, HIexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, ONexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Bromus sterilis is a widespread exotic grass and is known from the northeast, south and to the west, however, it is not present in the Great Plains states. This species seems to invade mostly waste places, and open areas. It has invaded a few natural habitats that are open, e.g., shale barrens and glades. It does threaten the formerly federally listed Lesquerella filiformis, the Missouri bladderpod, and rare shale barren communities in Maryland.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Unknown
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 17Feb2004
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Bromus sterilis is native to Africa, Asia and Europe (GRIN).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Kartesz 1999 shows that this species is broadly distributed in the United States. It occurs from New York and Massachusetts south to Tennessee (but not in Georgia, Alabama, Florida or Louisiana), west to California, Washington and Oregon. This species is exluded from the Great Plains states.

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Bromus sterilisis documented from natural areas in Maryland, Missouri, West Virginia (Keech and Landau 2002, University of Missouri 1998, USDA 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis and other exotic plant species are thought to alter the microclimate or erosion regimes of shale barren communities in Maryland (Keech and Landau 2002).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis does affect the the structure of the herbaceous layer (Yatskievych 1999, Keech and Landau 2002).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: This brome grass threatens the communities it occurs in most by affecting the community composition. It is known to alter the community composition in shale barrens in Maryland (Keech and Landau 2002) and limestone glades in Missouri (Yatskievych 1999).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis has been documented to negatively affect the formerly federally listed Lesquerella filiformis, Missouri bladderpod, known from southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas where it is restricted to limestone glades (Ecological Monitering Program 1998). B. sterilis negatively impacts on of the largest populations (of approximately 60 occurrences) of L. filiformis, in Wilson's Creek National Battlefield, Missouri. Keech and Landau 2002 notes that exotic plant species, such as B. sterilis, cause degradation of shale barren habitat which is required by native Lepidoptera species.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Moderate significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis affects at least one major occurrence of the formerly federally listed Lesquerella filiformis, the Missouri bladderpod (Yatskievych 1999). Keech and Landau 2002 report that B. sterilis (and other exotic species) negatively impact globally restricted shale barren communities in Maryland that are rich in quasi-endemic plant occurrences. They also note that exotic species like B. sterilis alter shale barren habitat needed by native Lepidoptera.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis is known from much of the United States as a non-native (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Insignificant
Comments: The proportion of Bromus sterilis' range where it is negatively impacting biodiversity appears to be low at the currect time, 2004. It is negatively impacting biodiversity in at least 3 states and possibly more. It is now well documented where this species is of great concern besides, MD, WV, MO and TN (NRCS 2004).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Many ecoregions in the United States have been invaded (Kartesz 1999, TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Bromus sterilis appears to invade open areas, and it is able to invade at least 2 natural habitats (shale barrens and limestone glades).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Unknown

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This brome grass is in many states in the United States, however, it is not documented from the Great Plains states. It's potential to spread there is not clear.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Unknown

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Moderate significance
Comments: Steyermark's 1963 report of this species in Missouri indicated it was restricted and uncommon, and Yatskievych 1999 says that it is widespread along roadsides and disturbed areas, and is invading limestone glades in the state.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: This species is able to successfully invade open areas, which are usually fields and waste places Hitchcock (1951) , however, it has been known to invade conservation areas that are open, such as shale barrens and limestone glades.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Dore, W.G. and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Monograph 26, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. 566 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2001b. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 7, Monocotyledons (Orchidaceae through Zosteraceae). B.C. Minist. Sustainable Resour. Manage., and B.C. Minist. For. Victoria, BC. 379pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Keech, D. K. and D. Landau. 2002. Alleghany Forests Project, MD/PA. Lanscape Conservation Networks. Eastern Invasives Management Network. Online. Accessed. 2/4/2004. http://tnc-ecomanagement.org/Weeds/SiteInformation/index.cfm?SiteID=44.

  • McNeill, J. and W.G. Dore. 1976. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Ontario grasses. Naturaliste Can. 103:553-567.

  • Pavlick, L.E. 1995. Bromus L. of North America. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. 160 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2001. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/var/apache/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?6438. (Accessed 2004)

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov) . National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

  • USDA. 2003. Botanical Survey for Threatened/Endangered/Sensitive & Non-Native/Insavse Plant Species in the Monogahela National Forest Greenbrier, Nicholas, & Tucker counties, West Virginia. Updated 26-May-2003. Online. Accessed 2/16/04. http://216.33.118.202/EPSData/USDA/Synopses/9006/R9-ORB-035093/2_Atch_Botany_survey.doc.

  • University of Missouri-Columbia. 1998. Missouri Bladderpod in Wilson's Creek National Battlefield, Missouri. Great Plains Prairie Cluster Long Term Ecological Monitoring Program. Updated 7/1/98. University of Missouri-Columbia. Online. Accessed 2/4/2004. http://missouri.edu./~aggwills/wilsons/monit/mbpod.html.

  • Yatskievych, G. 1999. Steyermark's Flora of Missouri, Volume 1. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

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