Bromus commutatus - Schrad.
Hairy Brome
Other English Common Names: Meadow Brome
Other Common Names: meadow brome
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bromus commutatus Schrad. (TSN 40497)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153377
Element Code: PMPOA150D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Bromus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bromus commutatus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (30Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Alaska (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ALexotic, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Unknown
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: According to several authors, Bromus commutatus is not distinct from Bromus japonicus (Great Plains Flora Association 1986, Hickman 1993, Howard 1994, Welsh et al. 2003). There appears to be much taxonomic confusion in this group. Bromus commutatus may also intergrade with B. squarrosus (Howard 1994). In his 1999 Synthesis, Kartesz did consider Bromus commutatus distinct from Bromus japonicus; however, his treatment of this genus is being revised. Weakley (2005) also notes that the relative abundance, distribution, and habitat of B. commutatus and B. racemosus is poorly understood for Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. It is very difficult to determine what information applies correctly to the species Bromus commutatus. In particular, the degree to which this species is able to spread into intact native plant communities, vs. being restricted to "weedy," disturbed places, is uncertain.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 08Dec2005
Evaluator: Maybury, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eurasia.

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Presumed minor or no impacts.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: May have some impact on the herbaceous layer.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Unknown

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No disproportionate impacts mentioned in sources consulted for either B. commutatus or B. japonicus.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Based on the literature consulted, neither B. commutatus or B. japonicus is assumed to be frequently threatening rare and vulnerable native species or communties or high-quality native plant communities. Most sources consulted (e.g., Steyermark 1963, Great Plains Flora Association 1986, Hickman et al. 1993, Weakley 2005) indicate that these plants are primarly found in disturbed areas and waste places. However, the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (2004) considers both species in the category of "Significant Threat," i.e., plants that "posess characteristics of invasive species but are not presently considered to spread as easily into native plant communities [as other plants ranked as Severe Threat]" Other plants in this category include Japanese barberry, tall fescue, hydrilla, privit, and wisteria. The species are also recorded on many plant lists from national and state parks and other natural areas (although possibly they are found only from disturbed places within these areas).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Even treated in a narrow sense excluding japonicus material, this species is widespread.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High/Low significance
Comments: See question 5; the degree to which these species impact native biodiversity is uncertain.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:High/Low significance

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Insignificant

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Already widespread.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Insignificant
Comments: Based on widespread current range.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Used for restoration in the West.

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Assumed not rapidly increasing (doubling within 10 years) or stable (since disturbance is apparently favorable and the species is still being planted).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Unknown
Comments: The degree to which this species requires disturbance to establish is uncertain.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Howard, J. L. 1994. Bromus japonicus. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ (accessed 2005, June 30).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2004. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee - 2004. Available: http://www.tneppc.org/TNEPPC2004PlantList-8x11.pdf. Accessed 2005.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia. Draft as of June 10, 2005. UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Available online: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm. Accessed 2005.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich and L.C. Higgins. (Eds.) 2003. A Utah Flora. 3rd edition. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, U.S.A. 912 pp.

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