Brodiaea santarosae - T. Chester, W. Armstrong & K. Madore
Santa Rosa Basalt Brodiaea
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.814730
Element Code: PMLIL0C0G0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Brodiaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Chester, T., W. Armstrong, and K. Madore. 2007. Brodiaea santarosae (Themidaceae), a new rare species from the Santa Rosa basalt area of the Santa Ana mountains of southern California. Madroņo 54(2): 187-198.
Concept Reference Code: A07CHE01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brodiaea santarosae
Taxonomic Comments: Most plants now assigned to this species were previously thought to be hybrids between Brodiaea orcuttii and Brodiaea filifolia. Chester et al. (2007) argue that these populations are a separate, distinct species rather than hybrids, because of (1) lack of sympatry between the three taxa, (2) "B. santarosae" plants have numerous characteristics that are not intermediate between the proposed parent taxa, and (3) true hybrids between Brodiaea orcuttii and Brodiaea filifolia, with the expected intermediate characteristics, appear to exist in San Marcos, CA, where the parent species overlap; these hybrids differ from "B. santarosae" plants (Chester et al. 2007). 
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Dec2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16Dec2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This species is essentially restricted to the Santa Rosa Basalt rock formation in southwest Riverside County and immediately-adjacent San Diego County, California. There are 12 occurrences, of which 6 are historical.  Threats not well known, but include development, altered hydrology, roads, and ORVs.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southwest Riverside County and immediately-adjacent Miller Mountain of San Diego County, California. Occurs only on or very close to the 8-11 million-year-old Santa Rosa Basalt. Most of the known populations occur within a ~40 sq. km area; one additional population is disjunct from these by 11 km (Chester et al. 2007).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 12 mapped occurrences; 6 are historical and need rechecking (CNDDB 2016). 

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats not well known, but definitely include development, altered hydrology, roads, and ORVs (CNDDB 2016).  Erosion of the Santa Rosa Basalt, to which this species appears restricted, is listed as a threat by Chester et al. (2007). It occurs at sites with abundant non-native grasses, but appears to co-exist stably with these species (Chester et al. 2007).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: One occurrence is ranked C or D (CNDDB 2016).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southwest Riverside County and immediately-adjacent Miller Mountain of San Diego County, California. Occurs only on or very close to the 8-11 million-year-old Santa Rosa Basalt. Most of the known populations occur within a ~40 sq. km area; one additional population is disjunct from these by 11 km (Chester et al. 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Riverside (06065), San Diego (06073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Jacinto (18070202)+, Aliso-San Onofre (18070301)+, Santa Margarita (18070302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from other Brodiaea species in southern California by its large flowers and distinctive, variable staminodes (Chester et al. 2007). Distinguishing flower and staminode features include: staminodes present in 90-100% of flowers, staminodes filiform or uniformly tapered from base to tip (vs. oblong to rectangular in outline, tapered only near tip if at all), filiments 2-8mm (vs. 0-1.5 mm), staminodes 0-7 mm long (vs. 1-4.5 mm), staminodes recurved to erect (vs. reflexed against perianth), perianth 24-36 mm (vs. 19-24 mm), style 10.5-17.0 mm (vs. 8-9.5 mm), ovary 3.5-8.2 mm (vs. 4-5 mm), anther 5.4-8.9 mm (vs. 5-5.5 mm) (Chester et al. 2007).
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: All known populations grow in soils derived from the Santa Rosa Basalt rock formation. Open areas, often grasslands, sometimes in areas with abundant tall non-native grasses. Grows in a range of moisture conditions, from vernal pool edges to relatively dry sites. Can grow in disturbed soil on roadsides.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Dec2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gravuer, K., rev. R. Bittman (2016)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2016. RareFind Version 5.1.1. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Chester, T., W. Armstrong, and K. Madore. 2007. Brodiaea santarosae (Themidaceae), a new rare species from the Santa Rosa basalt area of the Santa Ana mountains of southern California. Madroņo 54(2): 187-198.

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