Brodiaea filifolia - S. Wats.
Threadleaf Brodiaea
Other Common Names: threadleaf brodiaea
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Brodiaea filifolia S. Wats. (TSN 42806)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156359
Element Code: PMLIL0C050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Brodiaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brodiaea filifolia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Aug2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to southern California (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties). Populations are seriously threatened by ongoing, intensive development and by conversion to agriculture. In addition, this species is self-incompatible and requires pollination with plants that have different alleles at the incompatible locus.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (13Oct1998)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to southern California; presently known from Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Orange Counties. The historic range of this species extends from the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles Co., east to the western foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Co., south through the eastern portion of Orange Co., and in western Riverside Co. to the central portion of San Diego Co. (USFWS 2005).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Of the 131 occurrences, 12 are extirpated.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: There are several primary threats to this species including: loss and degradation of habitat, invasive species which alter the vegetation composition and structure of its habitat, recreational use of the land, mowing, disking and sewage dumping (USFWS 2005). In places where deep discing or repeated discing has occurred and land has been left fallow populations do persist, however, numbers are reduced and declining (USFWS 1998).

The major threat to this species is loss and degradation of its habitat. The majority of the occurrences occur in counties (San Diego, Orange, and Riverside) where human population numbers and pressure from needed housing exist. Natural areas in these counties are often surrounded by urban areas and development removes the vegetation needed for natural habitat and alters the clay soils that the species requires (USFWS 2005). In addition, nonnative species can alter the vegetative structure and composition of its habitat and can directly compete with the species for light and water (USFWS 2005). Recreation activities such as hiking and off-road vehicle use may change the vegetation composition and alter the soil. Mowing may reduce the number of seeds produced and dispersed, and can alter the vegetation such that the pollinators are less available. Finally, sewage sludge dumping can cover the plants and the soil, and can alter the soil chemistry such that the vegetation community is impacted (USFWS 2005).

The California Native Plant Society reports that this species is seriously threatened (2001).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Twelve occurrences extirpated and 33 with poor site conditions.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This species is an obligate outcrosser and not only requires outcrossing (in sexual reproduction) but also is incompatible with flowers on other plants with the same allele at the self-incompatible locus, therefore, suggesting that pollen dispersal over a good distance between plants with different alleles (at the self-incompatible locus) is needed (USFWS 2005). With that said, this species typically reproduces vegetatively, however, in order for genetic variability to be maintained sexual reproduction is necessary.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species requires clay soils in herbaceous communities (USFWS 2005)

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to southern California; presently known from Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Orange Counties. The historic range of this species extends from the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles Co., east to the western foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Co., south through the eastern portion of Orange Co., and in western Riverside Co. to the central portion of San Diego Co. (USFWS 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Los Angeles (06037), Orange (06059), Riverside (06065), San Bernardino (06071), San Diego (06073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Gabriel (18070106)+, San Jacinto (18070202)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+, Aliso-San Onofre (18070301)+, Santa Margarita (18070302)+, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+, San Diego (18070304)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with a flowering stem, 2-4 dm tall, and several shorter, narrow leaves arising from an underground bulb, a corm. Flowers (March-June) are violet to red-purple in color.
Technical Description: "Scape 2-4 dm high; leaves several, shorter than or nearly as long as scapes, 1-2 mm wide; pedicels 2-5 cm long; perianth violet, the tube greenish, narowly campanulate, 6-7 mm long, membranous and splitting in fruit; segments spreading, 9-12 mm long; staminodia plane, linear, 6-7 mm long when fresh, 2-3 mm in dry flowers, curved outward above; filaments 1 mm long, triangular; anthers 4 mm long, broad, notched; capsules short-ovoid; seeds 2-2.5 mm long" (Munz, 1959).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Brodiaea filifolia can be distinguished by flowers 1 mm long and staminodia (abortive stamen) present; perianth-tube thin-membranous and splitting (Munz, 1959).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Brodiaea filifolia's main means of reproduction is vegetative; it produces small cormlets. When reproducing sexually, this species is an obligate out-crosser, in other words it cannot produce seed when pollinated by flowers on the same plant or flowers from other plants that have the same alleles (USFWS 2005).
Ecology Comments: Grows in heavy clay soil (Munz, 1959).
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Grasslands, often in association with vernal pools and in floodplains. 90-300 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Apr2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E., rev. R. Bittman, rev. Maybury (1997), rev. L. Oliver (2003), rev. G. Davis (5/07), rev. L. Oliver (2009), rev. Bittman and Treher (2016)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abrams, L. 1940. Illustrated flora of the Pacific states: Washington, Oregon, and California. Vol. 1. Ophioglossaceae to Aristolochiaceae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 538 pp.

  • California Department of Fish and Game. 2000. Natural Diversity Database (RareFind 2), Version 2.1.2, January 25, 2000. Downloaded in 2003.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • Cox, R. 1983. Element preservation plan for Brodiaea filifolia. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy files.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Munz, P.A., with D.D. Keck. 1959. A California flora. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1681 pp.

  • Pearson, D.C. 1989. Endangered species alert program manual: Species accounts and procedures. Southern California Edison Environmental Affairs Division.

  • Smith, J.P., and K. Berg. 1988. California native plant society's inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 4th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 168 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2005. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Designation for critical habitat for Brodiaea filifolia (thread-leaved brodiaea) final rule. Federal Register 70: 73820-73863.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Proposed rule to list four southwestern California plants as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 59(240): 64812-64823.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: determination of endangered or threatened status for four southwestern California plants from vernal wetlands and clay soils. Federal Register 63(197):54975-54994.

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