Brickellia cordifolia - Ell.
Flyr's Brickell-bush
Other English Common Names: Flyr's Brickellbush
Other Common Names: Flyr's brickellbush
Synonym(s): Coleosanthus cordifolius (Ell.) Kuntze
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Brickellia cordifolia Elliot (TSN 36870)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138484
Element Code: PDAST1H0B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Brickellia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brickellia cordifolia
Taxonomic Comments: Has also been called Coleosanthus cordifolius.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Oct2015
Global Status Last Changed: 05Oct2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Only known from northern Florida and the adjacent Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. About 43 occurrences. Many occurrences are in forest fragments and transportation corridors. Threats include clear-cutting, conversion to pine plantations, and invasive plants.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S2), Florida (S2), Georgia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama south to northern Florida.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Alabama, there are 19 extant occurrences (Schotz 2007). In Florida, there are approximately 7 extant populations (Chafin 2000). In Georgia, approximately 17 populations have been seen in the last 20 years (Chafin 2007).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Eleven occurrences have good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by clearcutting and mechanical site preparation for pine plantations. Threatened by competition from invasive plants (Schotz 2007). The fragmentation of habitat is a threat, as the probability of a pollinator transporting pollen from one population to another is diminished (Schotz 2007). May also be threatened by fire suppression.

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama south to northern Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bullock (01011), Coffee (01031)*, Conecuh (01035), Covington (01039), Crenshaw (01041), Dale (01045)*, Geneva (01061), Henry (01067), Houston (01069), Lee (01081)*, Macon (01087)*, Pike (01109), Russell (01113)
FL Alachua (12001), Gadsden (12039), Jackson (12063), Jefferson (12065), Leon (12073), Wakulla (12129)
GA Chattahoochee (13053), Clay (13061), Early (13099)*, Marion (13197), Muscogee (13215), Quitman (13239)*, Randolph (13243)*, Seminole (13253)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oklawaha (03080102)+, Aucilla (03110103)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Chipola (03130012)+, Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201)+, Upper Conecuh (03140301)+, Patsaliga (03140302)+, Sepulga (03140303)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, 5-12 dm tall, with purplish disk flowers (no rays) in bloom in late summer to early fall.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Brickellia cordifolia has leaves that are rounded at the base and flower heads with pick or purplish bristles, while Brickellia eupatorioides has leaves with wedge-shaped bases and flower heads with white bristles (Chafin 2007; Weakley 2007). Other species with similar leaves are Ageratina aromatica and Conoclinium coelestinum but both have smaller flower heads and Ageratina aromatica has white flowers while Conoclinium coelstinum has blue flowers (Chafin 2007). Young sprouts of Callicarpa americana also resemble Brickellia cordifolia but Callicarpa americana leaves have wedge-shaped bases (Chafin 2007).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Mesic to dry-mesic pine-hardwood or oak-hickory upland forests. Plant associates include Quercus falcata, Pinus taeda, Magnolia grandiflora, Pinus glabra, and Quercus alba (Chafin 2007; Schotz 2007). Usually in sunny openings or at the edges of roads and trails but may persist in overgrown woods and disturbed areas (Chafin 2007). Early to mid-summer fires every few years were probably the natural fire regime of this habitat.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Brickellia cordifolia should consist of 75 or more individuals in a functional, high quality forest. Ideal habitat conditions are characterized by partially to lightly shaded slopes canopied with mature mixed hardwoods and pine. These occurrences prefer a relatively open understory with minimal competition from native and exotic species. The presence of invasive species, timber harvesting, and/or structures should be unobtrusive, covering less than 10 % of the population area.

Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Brickellia cordifolia should consist of 35 to 74 individuals in a functional, high quality forest. Optimal habitat conditions are characterized by partially to lightly shaded slopes beneath a mature canopy of mature mixed hardwoods and pine. These occurrences prefer a relatively open understory with minimal competition from native and exotic species. Occurrences represented by A-sized specifications with a moderate influence (to 40 %) from invasive species, timber harvesting and/or structures will qualify as a B-ranked occurrence. Restoration potential to A-ranked conditions is good.
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Brickellia cordifolia should consist of 10 to 34 individuals in a high quality forest. Ideal habitat conditions are characterized by partially to lightly shaded slopes beneath a canopy of mature mixed hardwoods and pine. These occurrences prefer a relatively open understory with minimal competition from native and exotic species. C-ranked occurrences are generally heavily shaded and may have a substantial herbaceous component that results in direct competition with B. cordifolia. Occurrences represented by A- and B-sized specifications heavily impacted (to 80 %) by anthropogenic modifications will qualify as a C-ranked occurrence. Restoration to a higher rank is attainable.

Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Brickellia cordifolia should consist of 1 to 9 plants, in either high or poor quality habitat. Given proper management recommendations, habitat enhancement to support larger in high quality sites is good. Habitat restoration in poor quality sites is very limited or not attainable.

Justification: Specifications are based on Element Occurrence Records, personal observations, and expert opinion. Larger, higher quality occurrences generally inhabit partially to lightly shaded slopes under mixed hardwoods with no or minimal evidence of human-derived disturbance. C- and D-ranked occurrences are, for the most part, either heavily shaded or highly degraded as a result of anthropogenic influences. Selective canopy removal is excessively shaded sites, if done carefully, will be beneficial to B. cordifolia.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 14Jul2005
Author: Schotz, A.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Oct2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D., Rev. D.L. White, rev. Patrick/Allison/Maybury (1996), rev. A. Tomaino (2008), rev. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Natural Heritage Program. 2003. Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2003. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Huntingdon College, Montgomery. [http://www.alnhp.org/pdf/annrep03.pdf]

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Chafin, L.G, J.C. Putnam Hancock, and H. Nourse. 2007. Field guide to the rare plants of Georgia. State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

  • Cronquist, A. 1980. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 1. Asteraceae. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 261 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006c. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 21. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 616 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Schotz, A. R. 2007. Status report on Flyr's brickell-bush, Brickellia cordifolia, in Alabama. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Montgomery, Alabama. Unpublished report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 6 pp. + 4 Appendices.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

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