Brassica nigra - (L.) W.D.J. Koch
Black Mustard
Other Common Names: black mustard
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch (TSN 23061)
French Common Names: moutarde noire
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137649
Element Code: PDBRA0C070
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Brassica
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brassica nigra
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (23Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, HIexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Help
Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Brassica nigra occurs in most of the continental U.S. states and also in Hawaii. It is widespread and locally common. Brassica nigra often occurs in disturbed habitats such as neglected fields, waste places, pastures, ditches, and roadsides, but it also threatens some communities of conservation significance in California including fog-belt grasslands, annual grasslands, and coastal sage scrub. Brassica nigra often forms pure stands in California annual grasslands. Brassica nigra has been shown to produce water soluble toxins which inhibit native grassland species. In California coastal scrub communities, Brassica nigra may dominate some sites after fires, because its dry above-ground biomass ignites more easily than native vegetation and because its seeds can survive fire. Although it is an annual, Brassica nigra exhibits some aggressive reproductive characteristics. It produces more than 1000 seeds per plant and seeds may be viable for more than 5 years. Most impacts to biodiversity appear to be in California but more information is needed.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Medium
I-Rank Review Date: 10Aug2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Europe, north Africa, western Asia, and India (GRIN 2001).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
Provide feedback on the information presented in this assessment

Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Occurs in neglected fields, waste places, pastures, and ditches (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Infests roadsides and other disturbed sites (Whitson et al. 1996). Found on banks of streams, usually in rich soils (Muenscher 1955).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: In California coastal scrub communities, Brassica nigra may dominate some sites after fires, because the dry above-ground biomass ignites more easily than native vegetation and because its seeds can survive fire (Wilken and Hannah 1998).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: An annual growing up to 15 dm tall (Whitson et al. 1996). Brassica nigra often forms pure stands in California annual grasslands (Bell Muller 1973).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Brassica nigra produces water soluble toxins which inhibit native grassland species and allow it to control extensive grassland areas (Bell and Muller 1973). On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra has quickly spread into native grasslands (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not major.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In California, classified as a wildland pest plant of lesser invasiveness; it is of concern in coastal communities, especially fog-belt grasslands (CALEPPC 1999). On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra has quickly spread into native grasslands (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003). It also invades annual grasslands in recently burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub in southern California (Wilken and Hannah 1998). Brassica nigra often occurs in disturbed habitats but also threatens some communities of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Brassica nigra occurs in most of the continental U.S. states and also in Hawaii (Kartesz 1999). Widespread and locally common throughout the United States (Muenscher 1955). In Hawaii, it occurs on the islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii (Wagner et al. 1999). Fairly widespread in several states, especially in California (Baldwin et al. 2004). It also occurs on all of the Channel Islands (Wilken and Hannah 1998). See the subnational distribution data in these sources: Baldwin et al. 2004, Rice 2004, Utah State University 1988, Weber et al. 2004, Wisconsin State Herbarium 2004, Iverson et al. 1999, Weldy et al. 2002, University of Tennessee Herbarium 2002, and Wunderlin and Hansen 2004.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In California, classified as a wildland pest plant of lesser invasiveness; it is of concern in coastal communities, especially fog-belt grasslands and disturbed areas (CALEPPC 1999). It is of particular concern in the Channel Islands (Wilken and Hannah 1998; Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003) It is also of concern at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (APRS Implementation Team 2001). More information is needed about its impacts across the U.S.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: At most > 50% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999), Wunderlin and Hansen (2004) and TNC (2001). At least 20% of units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Occurs in neglected fields, waste places, pastures, and ditches (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Infests roadsides and other disturbed sites (Whitson et al. 1996). Found on banks of streams, usually in rich soils (Muenscher 1955). In California, it occurs in fields and disturbed areas (Baldwin et al. 2004). In Hawaii, it occurs in disturbed areas, especially along roadsides and in pastures (Wagner et al. 1999). In California, it is of concern in coastal communities, especially fog-belt grasslands (CALEPPC 1999). On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra has quickly spread into native grasslands (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003). It also invades annual grasslands in recently burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub in southern California (Wilken and Hannah 1998).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: Brassica nigra is still available for sale. Occurs in disturbed areas; assumption is that disturbed areas are not declining and therefore this species' total range is not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Generalized range already covers more than 30% of region (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Siliques are 1 to 2 cm long (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Brassica nigra has little potential for long-distance dispersal at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and in North and South Dakota (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In California, seeds are passively dispersed; because seeds are spherical, some disperse by gravity and accumulate in low lying areas (Wilken and Hannah 1998). Brassica nigra is sold by the nursery trade and over the internet (Campbell, not dated).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra has quickly spread into native grasslands (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Occurs in neglected fields, waste places, pastures, and ditches (Agricultural Research Service 1970). Infests roadsides and other disturbed sites (Whitson et al. 1996). Found on banks of streams, usually in rich soils (Muenscher 1955). In California, it occurs in fields and disturbed areas (Baldwin et al. 2004). In Hawaii, it occurs in disturbed areas, especially along roadsides and in pastures (Wagner et al. 1999). In California, it is of concern in coastal communities, especially fog-belt grasslands (CALEPPC 1999). On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra has quickly spread into native grasslands (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003). It also invades annual grasslands in recently burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub in southern California (Wilken and Hannah 1998).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: In British Columbia, it is rare in the southwest and occurs in mesic fields and waste places in the lowland zone (Douglas et al. 1998). It has also been introduced in Australia and southern Africa (Wilken and Hannah 1998).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: An annual growing up to 15 dm tall (Whitson et al. 1996). Reproduces only by seed (Muenscher 1955; APRS Implementation Team 2001). Produces more than 1000 seeds per plant at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and in North and South Dakota (APRS Implementation Team 2001). At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, seeds remain viable in the soil for less than 1 year (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In North and South Dakota, seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Seeds may survive for as long as 50 years when buried in soil (Darlington and Steinbauer 1961 in Wilken and Hannah 1998).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Medium

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Reproduces only by seed (Muenscher 1955; APRS Implementation Team 2001). Brassica nigra produces water soluble toxins which inhibit annual grassland species and allow it to control extensive grassland areas (Bell and Muller 1973). On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra is being controlled in a grassland with a combination of herbicide and mechanical treatment followed by seeding with native grasses; string trimmers were used to remove the flower and seeds heads of Brassica nigra before viable seed could be produced (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003). Anthropogenic changes to soil appear to be an important factor for the success of many nonnatives; it was found that Brassica nigra could be reduced by as much as 40% by treating soils with mycorrhizal fungi (Allen et al. 1992 in Tellman 2002). Hand-pull scattered plants as soon as the plants begin to blossom (Muenscher 1955).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Reproduces only by seed (Muenscher 1955; APRS Implementation Team 2001). Produces more than 1000 seeds per plant at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and in North and South Dakota (APRS Implementation Team 2001). At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, seeds remain viable in the soil for less than 1 year (APRS Implementation Team 2001). In North and South Dakota, seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (APRS Implementation Team 2001). Seeds may survive for as long as 50 years when buried in soil (Darlington and Steinbauer 1961 in Wilken and Hannah 1998).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Low significance
Comments: On San Clemente Island, one of the Channel Islands of southern California, Brassica nigra was controlled with a combination of herbicide and mechanical treatment to mitigate the collateral damage to native species; areas of dense Brassica nigra were sprayed with herbicide while in areas with strong native growth, string trimmers were employed to remove the flower and seeds heads of the Brassica nigra before viable seed could be produced (Soil Ecology and Research Group 2003).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: Brassica nigra and cultivars derived from it are used in agriculture (Wilken and Hannah 1998). At least in some areas, accessibility may be a problem. However, livestock may be affected by a toxin in Brassica nigra (Klinkenberg 2004).
Authors/Contributors
Help

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Agricultural Research Service. 1970. Common weeds of the United States. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 463 pp.

  • Alien plants ranking system (APRS) Implementation Team. 2001a. Alien plants ranking system version 7.1. Southwest Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse, Flagstaff, AZ. Online. Available: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/swepic/ (accessed 2004).

  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken. 2004.
    Jepson Flora Project, Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.html (Accessed 2004).

  • Bell, D.T., and C.H. Muller. 1973. Dominance of California Annual Grasslands by Brassica nigra. American Midland Naturalist 90(2): 277-299.

  • California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. The CalEPPC List: Exotic Pest Plants of Greatest Ecological Concern in California. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Pest_Plant_List/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Cavers, P.B., ed. 1995. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. The Agricultural Institute of Canada, Ottawa.

  • Douglas, G. W., G. B. Straley, D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 1998. The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 2. Dicotyledons (Balsaminaceae through Cuscutaceae). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

  • Hoagland B.W., A.K. Buthod, I.H. Butler, P.H.C. Crawford, A.H. Udasi, W.J. Elisens, and R.J. Tyrl. 2004. Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database. Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman. Online. Available: http://geo.ou.edu/botanical (accessed 2004).

  • Iverson, L.R., D. Ketzner and J. Karnes. 1999. Illinois Plant Information Network. Database at http://fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.html. Illinois Natural History Survey and USDA Forest Service.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Muenscher, W. C. 1955. Weeds. The MacMillan Co., New York.

  • Rice, P.M. 2004. February 19 last update. Invaders Database System. Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula. Online. Available: http://invader.dbs.umt.edu (accessed 2004).

  • Soil Ecology and Research Group. 2003. August 5 last update. Draft implementation report: Invasive species control and native habitat enhancement Veldt Grass and Mustard Sites. Biology Department, San Diego State University. Online. Available: http://www.serg.sdsu.edu/SERG/restorationproj/channel_islands/sciinvasive/sci_implementation.htm.

  • Tellman, B., editor. 2002. Invasive Exotic Species in the Sonoran Region. The University of Arizona Press and the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson. 424 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2001. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/var/apache/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?6438. (Accessed 2004)

  • University of Tennessee Herbarium and Austin Peay State University. 2002. Database of Tennessee Vascular Plants. Department of Botany, Knoxville. Online. Available: http://tenn.bio.utk.edu/vascular/vascular.html (accessed 2004).

  • Utah State Univserity. 1988. Atlas of the vascular plants of Utah, digital version of paper atlas authored by Beverly J. Albee, Leila M. Shultz, and Sherel Goodrich and published by the Utah Museum of Natural History. Online. Available: http://www.gis.usu.edu/Geography-Department/utgeog/utvatlas/index.html (accessed 2004).

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Volumes 1 and 2. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp.

  • Weber, W. R., W. T. Corcoran, M. Brunell, and P. L. Redfearn. 2004. February last update. Atlas of Missouri vascular plants, dot map edition. Online. Available: http://biology.smsu.edu/Herbarium/Plants%20of%20the%20Interior%20Highlands/ATLAS%20MISSOURI%20VASCULAR%20PLANTS,%20DOT%20MAP%20EDITION.htm (accessed 2004)

  • Weldy, T., R. Mitchell, and R. Ingalls. 2002. New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, New York State Museum, Albany, NY. Online. Available: http://nyflora.org/atlas/atlas.htm (accessed 2004).

  • Whitson, T.D. (ed.), L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, R. Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West. 5th edition. The Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with the Western United States Land Grant Universities Cooperative Extension Services, Newark, CA. 630 pp.

  • Wilken, D., and L. Hannah. 1998. December 15 last update. Channel Islands National Park Fact Sheet on Brassica nigra. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. Online. Available: http://www.usgs.nau.edu/SWEPIC/factsheets/Brassica_nigra.pdf (accessed 6 August 2004).

  • Wisconsin State Herbarium. 2004, January 20, 2004 last update. Wisconsin state herbarium vascular plant species database. Available: http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2004. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. [S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. Online. Available: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.