Brassia caudata - (L.) Lindl.
Spider Orchid
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Brassia caudata (L.) Lindl. (TSN 43499)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139647
Element Code: PMORC0A010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Brassia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brassia caudata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01May2001
Global Status Last Changed: 01May2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Appears to be extirpated in Florida; status in remainder of range unknown. Threatened by overcollection.
Nation: United States
National Status: NX

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SX)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Dade County reported from Monroe, Florida; Mexico, West Indies, Central and northern South America (Luer 1972).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: One known Florida occurrence 12/90; also in the Caribbean.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Overcollection; destruction of hammocks and perhaps changes in hydrologic and fire cycles.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Dade County reported from Monroe, Florida; Mexico, West Indies, Central and northern South America (Luer 1972).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLextirpated

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Miami-Dade (12086)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Everglades (03090202)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Epiphytic orchid found on trunks and limbs of trees in hammocks of southern peninsular Florida. Usually grows at low elevations on trees in dense humid forests in the tropics. Flower with elongated narrow sepals and petals.
Technical Description: "Plant up to 5 dm or more tall. Pseudobulbs oblong-ellipsoid, compressed, two- to three- leaved at the apex, 6-15.5 cm long, 2-3.5 cm wide, subtended by two or more conduplicate scarious sheaths which are often leaf-bearing. Leaves from the apex of the pseudobulbs and often from sheaths surrounding the pseudobulbs, oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, obtuse to acute, coriaceous, conduplicate at the base, 1.3-3.5 dm long, 2-6 cm wide. Peduncle lateral, from the base of the pseudobulb, in the axil of a leaf-sheath, provided with remote tubular scarious bracts, up to 4 dm or more long (including the loosely few- (about 12) flowered raceme). Floral bracts triangular-cucullate, acute to subacuminate, scarious, spreading, 5-10 mm long. Flowers showy, distichously arranged on the rachis, with the slender pedicellate ovaries 1.2-1.5 cm long. Sepals and petals orange-yellow, spotted with reddish-brown. Sepals linear-lanceolate, gradually becoming long-acuminate to filiform-setaceous or caudate, 3-5 mm wide near the base; dorsal sepal 3.5-7.5 cm long; lateral sepals oblique, 7.5-18 cm long. Petals narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 1.5-3.5 cm long, 3-4 mm wide near the base. Lip sessile, yellowish or greenish, with reddish-brown blotches near the base, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic or broadly elliptic-obovate, more or less abruptly long-acuminate, with the upper margins crenulate and involute, 1.5-4 cm long, 7-13 mm wide at about the middle; disc with a pair of approximate pubescent lamellae at the base which have a tooth in front of each. Column short, erect, stout, about 4 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid or cylindric, stipitate, 4-5 cm long, 1-1.5 cm in diameter" (Correll, 1978).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Superficially resembles Encyclia cochleata however it differs by inflorescence which is lateral instead of terminal, flowers large, spindly with attenuated, trailing sepals and petals resembling a graceful column of speckled spiders.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Habitat Comments: Hammocks of southern Florida, and usually in low dense humid forests in the tropics. May also occur up to 1,700 ft in Dominican Republic, 2,000 ft in Honduras and 4,000 ft in Mexico (Correll, 1978).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: ESTHETIC, Showy wildflower
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jan1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D., rev. D. White (1990)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20May1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies. Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp.

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Luer, C. A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 293 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

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