Branchinecta paludosa - (O. F. Muller, 1788)
Circumpolar Fairy Shrimp
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Branchinecta paludosa (O. F. Müller, 1788) (TSN 83695)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109952
Element Code: ICBRA03130
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Crustaceans - Fairy, Clam, and Tadpole Shrimps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Crustacea Branchiopoda Anostraca Branchinectidae Branchinecta
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Saunders, J. F., D. Belk, and R. Dufford. 1993. Persistence of Branchinecta paludosa (Anostraca) in southern Wyoming, with notes on zoogeography. Journal of Crustacean Biology 13:184-189
Concept Reference Code: A93SAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Branchinecta paludosa
Taxonomic Comments: Material reported from Arizona by Belk (1975; 1977) are B. kaibabensis (Belk and Fugate, 2000)
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Oct2008
Global Status Last Changed: 21Jun2000
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Wideley distributed species from Arcticand subarctic habitats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (21Jun2000)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (21Jun2000)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Montana (SNR), Utah (SNR), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (SNR), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (SNR), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (SNR), Nunavut (SNR), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (SNR), Yukon Territory (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Branchinecta paludosa is found in Arctic and Subarctic seasonal wetlands, vernal pools and temporary pools in USA, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Poland, and Russia. Also occurrs in eqivalent alpine habitats in the Rocky Mountains in Canada and USA.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It is widely distributed throughout high northern latitudes around the world including Alaska, Yukon, coastal plains of the Arctic Ocean and Canadian Archipelago in general, Baffin Island, Greenland, Labrador, Quebec, Manitoba, and Wyoming; with the farthest east in Nova Scotia anf farthest south in Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming (Dexter, 1953). Hossack et al. (2010) collected this species in western Montana in one pond each in three drainages (Cutbank Creek, Lake Sherburne, Lee Creek) on the east side of Glacier National Park supporting earlier records from Park Co.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Branchinecta paludosa is found in Arctic and Subarctic seasonal wetlands, vernal pools and temporary pools in USA, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Poland, and Russia. Also occurrs in eqivalent alpine habitats in the Rocky Mountains in Canada and USA.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CO, ID, MT, UT, WY
Canada AB, LB, MB, NS, NT, NU, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: Arctic and subarctic or alpine equivalent seasonal wetlands.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Phyllopodous Branchiopods

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens of mature adult males at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Often both males and females are necessary for identification to the specific level. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. Photographs, diagnostic or not, are not acceptable for minimum occurrences.
Mapping Guidance: Due to the stochastic nature of local species distribution, map each pool, or series of pools within 100 m of one another, as separate occurrences.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are based on hydrological discontinuity. Any hydrological discontinuity, including presence of upland habitat, greater than 100 m constitutes a separation barrier. Note that dried ponds or pools that refill annually or cyclically are not considered separation barriers as phyllopodous branchiopod eggs are capable of dormancy in a resting stage typically lasting 6 to 10 months in temperate latitudes (Smith, 2001). In laboratory conditions, eggs have been reared from the resting stage years later.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave (troglobitic) species may occur from near entrances to very deep in cave systems. For cave species, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance unless caves are part of a single hydrological system (see below). Occurrences are additionally separated by underground physical barriers to movement. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered to be a single element occurrence when they are less than one km apart. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered separate element occurrences when hydrological connections have not been determined or when separated by a distance of at least one km.
Separation Justification: Phyllopodous Branchiopoda (Crustacea: Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata) include the fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps, respectively. They inhabit temporary ponds and pools and are absent from running water. Most species have few specific habitat preferences (Smith, 2001) occurring in most often in small (seldom exceeding one hectare) roadside ditches, vernal pools; as well as small to large permanent and (to a much lesser degree) temporary ponds. Rogers and Fugate (2001) report finding Branchinecta hiberna from railroad bed toe-drains and roadside ditches as small as 0.15 m2.

Species typically occur in the absence of fish. Presence of fish, though not considered a separation barrier for EO SPECS purpooses, is a very strong indicator of phyllopod absence and a barrier to dispersal. Rare exceptions occur when anostracans are found in large, deep freshwater lakes where fish predation is very low (Branchinecta in Canada- Anderson, 1974; Cyclestheria hislopi- Olesen et al., 1996). Species often have high tolerance to fluctuations in osmotic pressure, oxygen concentration, salinity, alkalinity, pH (though they prefer alkaline waters). Phyllopodous branchiopods typically have one (or two) generations each time potential habitat is made available often only hatching only some of the eggs at any given time while cyst banking the remainder (Belk and Cole, 1975; Loring et al., 1988; Ripley et al., 2004) so a major strategy is to produce as many small resistant eggs as possible in the shortest amount of time that aestivate and then hatch when the pool fills again.

Separating populations can be exceedingly difficult because a species may be abundant for several successive years, then be absent unaccountably for one or two years, then mysteriously return. Adults tend to be restricted to their area of occurrence only, and, although minimum separation distance has been set at only one km and some random dispersal by predators may occur (see below), phyllopods are usually present in scattered pools with nearby pools completely absent, for whatever reason. This may be attributed to stochastic distribution patterns resulting from dispersal of resting eggs by wind or transported by birds or insects that visit branchiopod habitat to drink or breed (Loring et al., 1988). Recently, resting eggs of the European fairy shrimp, Chirocephalus diaphanus, were shown to survive ingestion by trout and subsequent freezing and re-incubation in the laboratory without losing viability indicating fish may aid in dispersal of some species of fairy shrimp (Beladjal et al., 2007). Only subtle generic differences among populations of anostracans, even when close to each other (Boileau et al., 1992), suggests dispersal rate is either very low or completely random. Diversity in Arizona, for example, depends mainly on chemical heterogeneity among (mostly temporary) habitats; and thermal variation resulting both from ponds filling at different seasons and from altitudinal and latitudinal effects (Belk, 1977; Eng et al., 1990).

Date: 09Feb2007
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Oct2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Oct2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Rogers, D.C.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Belk, D. 1975. Key to the Anostraca (fairy shrimps) of North America. The Southwestern Naturalist, 20(1); 91-103.

  • Belk, D. 1977. Zoogeography of the Arizona fairy shrimps (Crustacea: Anostraca). Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science, 12: 70-78.

  • Belk, D. and M. Fugate. 2000. Two new Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from the southestern United States. The Southestern Naturalist, 45(2): 111-117

  • Dexter, R.W. 1953. Studies on North American fairy shrimps with the description of two new species. American Midland Naturalist 49:751-771.

  • Hossack, B.R., R.L. Newell, and D.C. Rogers. 2010. Branchiopods (Anostraca, Notostraca) from protected areas of western Montana. Northwest Science 84(1):52-59.

  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

  • Rogers, D. C. 2013. Anostraca catalogus (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 61(2):525?546.

  • Rogers, D. C. and M. A. Hill. 2013. Annotated Checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA, with the "rediscovery" of a new species of Branchinecta (Anostraca: Branchinectidae). Zootaxa. 3694:249-261.

  • Saunders, J. F., D. Belk, and R. Dufford. 1993. Persistence of Branchinecta paludosa (Anostraca) in southern Wyoming, with notes on zoogeography. Journal of Crustacean Biology 13:184-189

  • Saunders, J.F., III. Eubranchiopoda of Colorado, Part 2. Anostraca. Natural History Inventory of Colorado 6: 1-23.

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