Brachypodium sylvaticum ssp. sylvaticum
Slender False Brome
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
French Common Names: brachypode des bois
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.834778
Element Code: PMPOA13031
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Brachypodium
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxviii + 911 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B07FNA24HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Brachypodium sylvaticum ssp. sylvaticum
Taxonomic Comments: According to Flora of North America (2007), "plants in the Flora region belong to Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. sylvaticum, which has retrorsely pubescent sheaths, green leaves, green hairy lemmas, and spikelet lengths within the lower portion of the range given. Specimens with glabrous sheaths belong to B. sylvaticum ssp. glaucovirens (St.-Yves) Murb." Kartesz (1999) does not recognize subspecies within B. sylvaticum.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNRTNR
Rounded Global Status: TNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (07Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Virginia (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, ORexotic, VAexotic
Canada BCexotic, ONexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Help
Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Brachypodium sylvaticum is known in the United States from Oregon and California. In Oregon, it was discovered in 1939 and has rapidly spread since then. It tolerates a wide light regime and therefore is capable of invading many different habitat types. It is suspected that over time this species will spread into the rest of the Pacific Northwest (Washington, Idaho and British Columbia). In addition, this species outcompetes native forbs and grasses, to their exclusion, and also threatens two rare species, Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine) and Icaricia icariodes fenderi (Fender's blue butterfly).
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 13Feb2004
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Brachypodium sylvaticum is native to North Africa, Europe and Asia (Kaye 2001).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
Provide feedback on the information presented in this assessment

Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is established as a non-native in the United States, and specifically in Oregon and California (Kartesz 1999, California Invasive Plant Council).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum has invaded several natural habitats in Oregon, including riparian forests, upland hardwood forests, conifer forests, and upland prairies (Kaye 2001).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum is highly invasive in the areas where it occurs in the United States. Currently, it is spreading rapidly through Oregon and has recently been reported in California. In Oregon, it affects ecological processes by sequestering soil moisture which is inhibiting seedling establishment. Also, it has the potential to change fire behaviour by changing the fuel load (Tu 2002).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum forms large clumps and can completely dominate the understory or open habitat (Kare 2002).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum forms monospecifc stands by outcompeting native species. This species can completely exclude native forbs and grasses (Tu 2003). In the Willamete Valley, Oregon this species may occur with native perennial grasses such as Bromus vulgaris, Festuca subulata, and Melica subulata in forest understories (Kaye 2001). In open areas (e.g., prairies and forest edges) it has been found with native grasses, such as Elymus glaucus, Bromus carinatus, Danthonia californica, and Festuca californicua (Kaye 2002). This species has low palatibility to wildlife (Kaye 2001).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum negtively impacts Lupinus suplureus ssp. kincaidii which is the host plant for the endangered Fender's blue butterly, Icaricia icarioides fenderi (Kaye 2001).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum negatively impacts two rare species, one a plant Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (G5T2) which serves as the host plant for Icaricia icarioides fenderi (G5T1), the endangered Fender's blue butterfly (Kaye 2001).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum is known from many sites in Oregon, and has recently been discovered in the Santa Cruz Mountains (southwest of San Francisco) California (California Invasive Plant Council).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Moderate significance
Comments: This species is known from western Oregon, with concentrations around Corvallis and northeast of Eugene ( ). It is also known from one site in the Santa Cruz Mountains in California (California Invasive Species Council).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: This species is present in 6 biogeographical units on the TNC ecoregional map.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum has invaded riparian forests, uploadn hardwoods forests, conifer forests and upland prairies (Kaye 2001).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: This species has been spreading rapidly since it's discovery in 1939. Tu (2002) says, "By 1966, it was well-established in two large colonies near Corvallis, Oregon and since then has been quickly increasing in cover and range".

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Moderate significance
Comments: Kaye (2001) says that this species seems likely to spread rapidly to the rest of the Pacific Northwest (Washington and British Columbia) and Idaho (Tu 2003). There are also unconfirmed reports that this species has invaded Colorado and Utah (Kaye 2001).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Unknown

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: This species invaded Oregon in 1939 and by 1966 it spread into two large colonies near Corvallis. Since then it has continued to spread rapidly, increasing in dominance (Tu 2002). This species has recently been reported from California (California Invasive Plant Council).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Moderate significance
Comments: Kaye (2003) reports that this species had a broad ecological amplitude, and specifically, it can tolerate both full sun and shade allowing it to invade a number of habitats. Katye (2003) also notes that it can dominate in each of these conditions to the exclusion of native plants.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Brachypodium sylvaticum is known to resprout after fire, usually within two weeks (Kaye 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Moderate significance
Comments: This species requires active control. Herbicides are an effective control; mowing and burning alone, however, are not adequate (Kaye 2003).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
Help

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxviii + 911 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.