Botrychium virginianum - (L.) Sw.
Rattlesnake Fern
Other Common Names: rattlesnake fern
Synonym(s): Botrypus virginianus (L.) Holub ;Botrypus virginianus ssp. europaeus (Angstrom) Holub
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. (TSN 17173)
French Common Names: botryche de Virginie
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129787
Element Code: PPOPH010H0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium virginianum
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1994 checklist and 1999 floristic synthesis) does not recognize subspecies or varieties within this species. The Panama Conservation Data Center recognizes var. mexicanum and var. virginianum separately; the Alaska Heritage Program and the U.S. Air Force Academy (in Colorado) recognize var. europaeum separately.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 19Jan1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (28Jan2014)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Alaska (S2), Arizona (S1), Arkansas (SNR), California (S2), Colorado (S1), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S5), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S2), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (S4S5), British Columbia (S4), Labrador (S1), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S4), Newfoundland Island (S3), Northwest Territories (S3), Nova Scotia (S4), Nunavut (S2), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S3), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern Alaska to Labrador, south to Oregon, Arizona, Texas, Kansas, and Florida.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern Alaska to Labrador, south to Oregon, Arizona, Texas, Kansas, and Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Mendocino (06045), Shasta (06089), Siskiyou (06093), Trinity (06105)
CO Boulder (08013), El Paso (08041)*, Teller (08119)*
WY Crook (56011), Park (56029), Sheridan (56033), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+
11 Fountain (11020003)+*
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Teton (17040204)+
18 Middle Fork Eel (18010104)+, Scott (18010208)+, South Fork Trinity (18010212)+, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Mccloud (18020004)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cody, W.J. 1961. New forms in Botrychium virginianum. American Fern Journal. 51: 36-37.

  • Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Publication 1829/E, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa. 430 pp.

  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1997. Rare Plants of Colorado, second edition. Falcon Press Publ., Helena, MT.

  • Dorn, R. D. 1992. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, second edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Evert, E. F. 2010. Vascular Plants of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Annotated Catalog and Atlas. Park Ridge, IL.

  • Evert, E. F. No Date. Rare plants: Teton-Darby Canyon Area. Unpublished report.

  • Farrar, D. R. and S. J. Popovich. 2012. Ophioglossaceae. Pages 24-35 Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope, fourth edition. W.A. Weber and R.C. Wittmann. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

  • Fertig, W. 1998. The status of rare plants on Shoshone National Forest: 1995-97 survey results. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 1999. The status of rare plants in the Bighorn Landscape. Report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Wyoming Field Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Fertig, W. and G. Jones. 1992. Plant communities and rare plants of the Swamp Lake Botanical Area, Clarks Fork Ranger District, Shoshone National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 2 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the Plants of Colorado. Sage Books, Denver, CO.

  • Hauk, W.D., C.R. Parks, and M.W. Chase. 2003. Phylogenetic studies of Ophioglossaceae: evidence from rbcL and trnL-F plastid DNA sequences and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 131-151.

  • Heidel, B. and S. Laursen. 2003. Botanical and ecological inventory of peatland sites on the Shoshone National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist and M. Ownbey. 1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 1: Vascular Cryptograms, Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

  • Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

  • Jones, G. P. and W. Fertig. 1998. Ecological evaluation of the Mann Creek potential Research Natural Area within the Bighorn National Forest, Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bighorn National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

  • Markow, S. and W. Fertig. 1993. Report on a general floristic survey of vascular plants of Targhee National Forest and vicinity. Unpublished report prepared for Targhee National Forest by the Rocky Mountain Herbarium and the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Marriott, H. J. 1989. Suitability investigation report for a Proposed Dugout Gulch Special Botanical Area, Black Hills National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for the Black Hills National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • O'Dea, K. and W. Fertig. 2000. State Species Abstract: Botrychium virginianum. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

  • Porter, C.L. 1962. A Flora of Wyoming, Part 1. Bulletin 402:1-39. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming.

  • Soltis D.E. And P.S. Soltis. 1986. Electrophoretic evidence for inbreeding in the fern Botrychium virginianum (Ophioglossaceae). American Journal of Botany 73(4):588-592.

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado Rare Plant Field Guide. Prepared for the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

  • Wagner Jr., W. H. and F. S. Wagner. 1993. Ophioglossaceae. Pages 85-106 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

  • Wagner, D.H. 1992. Guide to the species of Botrychium in Oregon. Unpublished report prepared by the University Herbarium, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

  • Weakley, Alan S. 2011. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Unpublished draft of 15 May 2011. University of North Carolina Herbarium, Chapel Hill. 1072 pp. Available electronically and as a bound copy from the UNC Herbarium.

  • Weber, W.A. and Ronald Wittmann. 1996. Colorado Flora: Western Slope. University Press of Colorado.

  • Weber, W.A., and R.C. Wittmann. 1992. Catalog of the Colorado flora: A biodiversity baseline. University Press of Colorado, Niwot. 215 pp.

  • Williston, P. 2001. The Botrychium of Alberta. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 57p.

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