Botrychium pedunculosum - W.H. Wagner
Stalked Moonwort
Other Common Names: stalked moonwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium pedunculosum W.H. Wagner (TSN 501026)
French Common Names: botryche pédonculé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.130986
Element Code: PPOPH010T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium pedunculosum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 31Aug2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Primarily known from northwestern North America, including northcentral and northeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, central California, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana, west-central and east-central British Columbia, southern Alberta, and southern Saskatchewan. Also occurs disjunctly on the Alaska peninsula and in northern Quebec. Approximately 41-56 extant occurrences are known, mostly from Washington, Montana, and Oregon. Most occurrences are small in size (median 5-8 plants) and the total population may not be more than 2000-3000 plants. Threats include cattle grazing, road building and maintenance, timber harvesting, recreational activities, and possibly fire suppression resulting in successional takeover of sites. Habitat is rather broad and more plants are expected to be found.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (31Aug2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (S1), California (S1), Idaho (S1), Montana (S1S2), Oregon (S1), Washington (S2)
Canada Alberta (S1), British Columbia (S3), Quebec (S1), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in northcentral and northeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, central California, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana, west-central (Skeena River) and east-central (Quesnel area) British Columbia, two widely separated locations in southern Alberta (southwestern AB adjacent to MT occurrences and southeasten AB near SK border), and southern Saskatchewan. Disjunct occurrences are known from the Alaska peninsula and northern Quebec. Range extent calculated using GIS tools is somewhat dependent on which occurrences are considered "disjunct" from the main range, but an extent of around 500,000 km2 seems reasonable (considering AK occurrence, QC occurrence, and eastern SK occurrence as disjunct, and roughly following Farrar (2005) for likely range boundary).

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, Area of Occupancy is estimated as approximately 212 km2.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 41 occurrences are currently presumed extant, with a further 15 occurrences not yet ranked (i.e. unclear whether historic or extant), for a total of 56 possibly extant occurrences. The largest number of mapped occurrences are found in Washington (10 extant and 8 not ranked), Montana (15 extant), and Oregon (9 extant), with less than 5 occurrences documented in each of the other jurisdictions (Idaho, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Alaska, and Quebec). The Quebec occurrence is a relatively recent (2004) discovery.

Population Size Comments: Estimating from available occurrence counts, total population size appears to range from 650 to 2000-3000 aboveground plants, depending on the year. Most occurrences are small, with a median of 5-8 plants per occurrence. Two extant occurrences in Oregon and three in Washington have high counts of over 100 plants, and one Montana occurrence was counted at 125 plants. However, it should be noted that counts of aboveground plants (mature sporophytes) are known to be an incomplete and inconsistent indicator of population size in Botrychium, because an unknown number of gametophytes, immature sporophytes, and dormant mature sporophytes exist underground. Studies on other Botrychium species have documented large annual fluctuations in the number of aboveground plants at a given site, without any apparent cause.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: In Oregon, there is possibly one occurrence with good viability; the site had been reported with 200 plants in one year (1991) but at the next visit in 1993 only 1 plant was noted. This location is known to have a variety of Botrychium species. In Montana, one occurrence is believed to have excellent viability, and up to three others may have good viability although numbers of aboveground plants are low. In Quebec, little data is available regarding the recently-discovered occurrence, but it is likely to be viable given its remote location. Viability for Washington occurrences has not yet been assessed, but there are at least three occurrences with over 100 aboveground plants in good years.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include cattle grazing, road building and maintenance, timber harvesting (incl. use of sites as staging areas), and recreational activities such as camping, horse riding, and ORV use. Fire suppression, which is allowing succession to proceed at many occupied sites, may also be an issue. Some occurrences, such as the one in Quebec, may face few threats due to remoteness.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Assumed to be stable, especially remote occurrences such as the one in Quebec.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: All Botrychium species are believed to be obligately dependent on mycorrhizal relationships in both the gametophyte and sporophyte generations. This relationship is important to many aspects of Botrychium ecology; mycorrhizae appear to be a key determinant of Botrychium establishment, distribution, and abundance. In Botrychium, spores persist in the soil for several years and, along with underground gametophytes and developing sporophytes, form a somewhat buffered population that can rebound from unfavorable years, as long as the sporophytes are not destroyed.

Environmental Specificity Comments: Habitat moisture balance appears to be important to moonworts and their supporting mycorrhizae.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in northcentral and northeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, central California, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana, west-central (Skeena River) and east-central (Quesnel area) British Columbia, two widely separated locations in southern Alberta (southwestern AB adjacent to MT occurrences and southeasten AB near SK border), and southern Saskatchewan. Disjunct occurrences are known from the Alaska peninsula and northern Quebec. Range extent calculated using GIS tools is somewhat dependent on which occurrences are considered "disjunct" from the main range, but an extent of around 500,000 km2 seems reasonable (considering AK occurrence, QC occurrence, and eastern SK occurrence as disjunct, and roughly following Farrar (2005) for likely range boundary).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, ID, MT, OR, WA
Canada AB, BC, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Lake and Peninsula (02164)
CA Tuolumne (06109)
ID Bonner (16017), Shoshone (16079)
OR Baker (41001), Grant (41023), Umatilla (41059), Union (41061), Wallowa (41063)
WA Ferry (53019), King (53033), Pend Oreille (53051), Snohomish (53061)*, Stevens (53065), Whatcom (53073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Kettle (17020002)+, Colville (17020003)+, Powder (17050203)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Upper Skagit (17110005)+, Stillaguamish (17110008)+*, Skykomish (17110009)+
18 Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+
19 Port Heiden (19030201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Tall (5-25 cm) perennial moonwort. Stalk is often reddish brown at the base, splitting into a long-stalked dull gray-green blade (mostly sterile, leaf-like segment) and a fertile segment bearing spore clusters which often has two large lateral branches. The lowest segment of the leaf-like portion often bears spores as well.
General Description: Stalked moonwort is a perennial with a single above ground frond up to 25 cm tall. It is divided into two segments that share a common stalk. The lower common stalk is usually reddish brown and the upper part of the plant is a dull green. The mostly sterile segment is conspicuously stalked and once to twice pinnatifid with up to five pairs of primary pinnae. The pinnae have irregular lobes and vary from pinnatifid to bifid to narrowly fan shaped and the lower ones often bear sporangia. The fertile segment is longer than the sterile segment and bears grape-like sporangia that contain thousands of spores; larger plants usually have two large ascending lateral branches.
Technical Description: From Wagner and Wagner (1986) and Flora of North America (1993): Plants (5-)11-13(-25) cm tall. Common stalk usually possesses a reddish- to pinkish-brown stripe leading down from the trophophore base, (4-)6-7(-15) cm tall. Trophophore stalk to 2.6 cm, up to 1.1 times length of trophophore rachis. Trophophore blade dull graygreen and leathery, commonly shallowly rolled, spoon-like, triangular to ovate-triangular, widest at the base, 1-pinnate, to 4.5 x 2 cm. Pinnae to 5 pairs, somewhat ascending, approximate to well separated, distance between first and second pinnae not or slightly more than between second and third pairs. Pinnae broadly attached, basal pinna pair approximately equal in size and cutting to adjacent pair, lower pinnae asymmetrical, ovate-rhombic to spatulate, lobed to tip, margin with 1-6 entire to coarsely crenate lobes, the tips usually more or less pointed, venation pinnate, the upper ones becoming narrowly flabellate; largest pinnae up to 1.5 cm long and 1.0 cm wide. Sporophores 1-3-pinnate, 2-4 times the length of the trophophore; sporophore stalk (20-)50(-70) percent of sporophore length, sporophore branches in large plants with two major ascending lateral branches up to 70-100 percent as long as whole sporangial cluster. 2n =180.
Diagnostic Characteristics: B. pedunculosum is the only western twice-dissected moonwort in which the length of the trophophore stalk equals or exceeds the distance between the first two pinna pairs. It is also distinguished by its strongly glaucous, bluish-green color, its more or less triangular trophophore blade, and the frequent presence of two large lateral branches on the sporophore. In addition, the common stalk usually possesses a distinctive reddish- to pinkish-brown stripe leading down from the trophophore base; however, this character is also sometimes present in B. hesperium, B. michiganense, and B. matricariifolium, somewhat limiting its diagnostic value. Finally, it may be possible to distinguish B. pedunculosum by the frequent presence of sporangia on the margins of its lower pinnae. However, Farrar (2005) cautions that this attribute should be used at the population level (i.e. most of the plants in the population possess the character) rather than in identifying single individuals, as all moonwort species may exhibit this attribute occasionally, and it is really the regularity and pervasiveness of the character in B. pedunculosum (and B. ascendens) populations that is distinctive. Botrychium pedunculosum is most similar to B. pinnatum and B. hesperium, which may also have reddish common stalks and pinnatifid pinnae. It can be distinguished from both of these species by its long-stalked trophophore. It further differs from B. pinnatum in its dull gray-green (vs. bright green) color and its leathery (vs. papery) texture. It further differs from B. hesperium in its lowest pinnae pair about the same size as the the adjacent pair (vs. conspicuously larger than the adjacent pair). It may soon be necessary to distinguish this species from B. matricariifolium as well, as these species may be found to overlap in Quebec as inventory efforts proceed. B. pedunculosum can be distinguished from B. matricariifolium by the more triangular outline of its trophophore blade and pinnae that are more rhomboidal in outline (a rectangle attached at one corner) (Flora of North America 1993, Kershaw et al. 2001, Farrar 2005, Idaho Conservation Data Center 2005).
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Habitats in the main part of the range include (1) mountain meadows (often moist, occasionally wet or dry) and willow thickets; (2) streamside areas, including brushy secondary-growth habitats, riparian draws with western hemlock or western redcedar, swales, and old stream channel bottoms; (3) open- to closed-canopy forests and woodlands, including western redcedar forests, coniferous forests, and brushy secondary woodlands; and (4) roadsides or other similarly open or disturbed habitats. In Alaska, the species occurs in a moist meadow under tall forbs, and in Quebec, plants are found at the base of a mountain scree slope. Common moonwort associates (at least in Montana and Washington) include B. minganense, B. lanceolatum, B. montanum, B. lunaria, and B. pinnatum. Other moonworts reported include B. paradoxum, B. ascendens, B. pallidum, B. hesperium, B. simplex, B. crenulatum and B. michiganense. 300-2000 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Observations suggest that it may not be possible to rely upon anthropogenic disturbances to create sufficient suitable habtiat for all rare moonworts. To ensure the existence of some rare species, processes that create natural disturbances will need to be maintained or mimicked (e.g. by prescribed burning) (Williston 2002).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Oct2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vrilakas, Sue (1997), rev. L. Morse (1998, 2000), rev. K. Gravuer (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2000. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 5, Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 389pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J.L. Penny. 2002. Rare native vascular plants of British Columbia. Second edition. March 2002. The Province of British Columbia, Victoria.

  • Farrar, D. R. 2005e, January last update. Botrychium pedunculosum species description, map, and photo page. In Farrar, D.R. 2006, June last update. Systematics of moonworts Botrychium subgenus Botrychium. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames. Online. Available: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium.html (Accessed 2008)

  • Harms, V.L., P.A. Ryan and J.A. Haraldson. 1992. The rare and endangered vascular plants of Saskatchewan. Prepared for the Saskatchewan Natural History Society. Unpubl.

  • Idaho Conservation Data Center. 2005. Idaho's special status plants. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. Online. Available: http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/cms/tech/CDC/plants/ (Accessed 2005)

  • Johnson-Groh, C. 1999. Population ecology of Botrychium (moonworts), status report on Minnesota Botrychium permanent plot monitoring. Dept. of Biology, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kershaw, L., J. Gould, D. Johnson, and J. Lancaster. 2001. Rare vascular plants of Alberta. Univ. of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta and Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. 484pp.

  • Wagner, W.H. Jr. and F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2):33-47.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program and USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 2003. Field guide to selected rare plants of Washington. Online. Available: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/htm/fsfgabc.htm. Accessed 2003, May 9.

  • Williston, P. 2001. The Botrychium of Alberta. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 57p.

  • Williston, P. 2002. The Botrychiaceae of Alberta: A survey of element occurrences of the genera Botrychium and Sceptridium in Alberta. A report by Patrick Williston, Mnium Ecological Research, to Resource Data Division, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. January 2002. Online. Available: http://www.tprc.alberta.ca/parks/heritageinfocentre/docs/botrychium_report_final%202002.pdf (Accessed 2008).

  • Williston, P. 2005. Vascular plant species at risk in Mt. Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks. Rep. prepared for Parks Can. by Gentian Botanical Research, Smithers, BC. 40 pp + app.

  • Williston, P. 2006. Vascular Plant Species at Risk in Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks: Alpine Habitats. Rep. prepared for Parks Can. by Gentian Botanical Research, Smithers, BC. 23pp.+app.

  • Zika, P.F. 1992c. The results of a survey for rare BOTRYCHIUM species (moonworts and grape-ferns) July-September 1991 in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Unpublished document, Oregon Natural Heritage Program. 46 pp. + Appendices.

  • Zika, P.F. 1994b. A draft management plan for the moonworts BOTRYCHIUM ASCENDENS, B. CRENULATUM, B. PARADOXUM and B. PEDUNCULOSUM in the Wallowa-Whitman, Umatilla & Ochoco National Forests. Unpublished document. 69 pp. + Appendices

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