Botrychium minganense - Victorin
Mingan Moonwort
Synonym(s): Botrychium lunaria ssp. minganense (Victorin) Calder & Taylor ;Botrychium lunaria var. minganense (Victorin) Dole
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium minganense Victorin (TSN 17186)
French Common Names: botryche de Mingan
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156367
Element Code: PPOPH010R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium minganense
Taxonomic Comments: Botrychium minganense Victorin has been considered at variety of B. lunaria, but is tetraloid while B. lunaria is diploid. Dr. Peter Root recognizes the species as occurring in Colorado, although Weber and Wittman (1992) state that Colorado records are in error and evidently apply to B. pallidum. Collections made in Archuleta County in 2001 were identified by Dr. Root and Dr. Peter Zika as B. minganense.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 31Aug2016
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Botrychium minganense is widespread, with a scattered distribution across most of Canada, into Alaska, and south into western United States to Arizona and along the Canadian/US border states. It is considered rare or uncommon where found, often with very few individuals per site. Some of the locations are protected in special management areas.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (31Aug2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (S1), California (S2), Colorado (S3), Idaho (S3), Maine (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S3), Montana (S4), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New York (S1), North Dakota (S1), Oregon (S3), South Dakota (S2S3), Utah (S1), Vermont (SH), Washington (S4), Wisconsin (S2), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S3S4), Labrador (S1), Manitoba (S2S3), New Brunswick (S2), Newfoundland Island (S3), Northwest Territories (S2), Nova Scotia (SH), Nunavut (S2), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S3?), Saskatchewan (S1), Yukon Territory (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: One of the most widespread moonworts in North America, occurring in practially all parts of Canada and Alaska and throughout the western United States, south to Arizona, and in all the US/Canadian border states.

Area of Occupancy: 26-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Total area of occupancy estimated to be between 5,000-125,000 acres. Plant populations are widespread and scattered but plant numbers per population appear to be small (<15).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Oregon, there are 115 known occurrences (ORNHIC 2002), another 62 or so in Washington (ISMS 2002). It is estimated that there are at least 300 global occurrences since this species is found in 18 other states and 12 provinces.
There are 36 principal occurrences documented in the Colorado Natural Heritage Program data system. 1 of the 36 occurrences has not been observed in over 20 years.

Population Size Comments: In Washington, more than 12,000 individuals have been recorded, and in Oregon, total plant numbers are reported to be about 3000. However, many occurrences have very few individuals; for example, most of the occurrences in Oregon were reported to have ten plants or fewer.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: It is estimated that at least 41 occurrences in Oregon are of good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Low

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Most populations have very few individuals, although some occurrences have hundreds or thousands.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: One of the most widespread moonworts in North America, occurring in practially all parts of Canada and Alaska and throughout the western United States, south to Arizona, and in all the US/Canadian border states.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NH, NV, NY, OR, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009), El Dorado (06017), Fresno (06019)*, Lassen (06035), Modoc (06049), Mono (06051)*, Nevada (06057), Placer (06061), Plumas (06063), San Bernardino (06071)*, Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Tehama (06103), Trinity (06105), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109)
CO Archuleta (08007), Boulder (08013), Clear Creek (08019), Conejos (08021), Custer (08027), Eagle (08037), Gilpin (08047), Grand (08049), Hinsdale (08053), Jackson (08057), Lake (08065), Larimer (08069), Mineral (08079), Pitkin (08097), Rio Grande (08105), San Juan (08111), San Miguel (08113), Summit (08117), Teller (08119)
ID Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021), Clearwater (16035), Idaho (16049), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Shoshone (16079)
MN Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029)*, Cook (27031), Crow Wing (27035), Itasca (27061), Kanabec (27065), Koochiching (27071), Lake (27075), Lake of the Woods (27077), Marshall (27089), Norman (27107)*, Roseau (27135), St. Louis (27137)
ND Bottineau (38009), Burke (38013)*, Cavalier (38019), Ransom (38073), Ward (38101)*
NY Onondaga (36067)
OR Baker (41001), Crook (41013), Douglas (41019), Grant (41023), Harney (41025), Hood River (41027), Linn (41043), Morrow (41049), Umatilla (41059), Union (41061), Wallowa (41063), Wasco (41065), Wheeler (41069)
UT Utah (49049)*
VT Windsor (50027)*
WI Ashland (55003), Barron (55005), Bayfield (55007), Chippewa (55017), Door (55029), Douglas (55031), Forest (55041), Price (55099), Rusk (55107), Sawyer (55113), Washburn (55129)
WY Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Johnson (56019), Park (56029), Sheridan (56033), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+*
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Lake Superior (04020300)+*, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Oconto (04030104)+, Brule (04030106)+, Oneida (04140202)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Pine (07010105)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Namekagon (07030002)+, Snake (07030004)+, Upper Chippewa (07050001)+, Flambeau (07050002)+, South Fork Flambeau (07050003)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+
09 Des Lacs (09010002)+*, Willow (09010004)+, Otter Tail (09020103)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+*, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Thief (09020304)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Upper South Platte (10190002)+, Clear (10190004)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Big Thompson (10190006)+*, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+, Upper Arkansas (11020002)+, Fountain (11020003)+
13 Rio Grande headwaters (13010001)+, Conejos (13010005)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Blue (14010002)+, Eagle (14010003)+, Roaring Fork (14010004)+, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, San Miguel (14030003)+, Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Animas (14080104)+
16 Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101)+, Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Upper Malheur (17050116)+, Burnt (17050202)+, Powder (17050203)+, Imnaha (17060102)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106)+, Lower Selway (17060302)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+, Walla Walla (17070102)+, Umatilla (17070103)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Upper John Day (17070201)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Middle Fork John Day (17070203)+, Beaver-South Fork (17070303)+, Upper Crooked (17070304)+, Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, South Santiam (17090006)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, Silvies (17120002)+, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+, Alvord Lake (17120009)+
18 Trinity (18010211)+, Upper Pit (18020002)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Upper Yuba (18020125)+, North Fork American (18020128)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, South Fork Kern (18030002)+, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+, Upper King (18030010)+*, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+*, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Mono Lake (18090101)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: B. minganense is similar to other Botrychium spp. in having two fronds, one sterile and the other bearing spores. The sterile frond is dull green to yellow-green. Leaves appear in spring and throughout summer, and spores are produced in July.

General Description: Mingan Island Moonwort is a small perennial fern with a single aboveground frond. The frond varies in height, but may reach about 20 cm. It is divided into two segments which share a common stalk, and it is usually a deep, dull green and somewhat fleshy. The sterile segment is once pinnatifid with up to 10 usually well separated pairs of pinnae. The pinnae are variable; they are generally narrowly fan-shaped with rounded, entire margined apices, but can be broader and may be lobed or have incised margins. The fertile segment is longer than the sterile segment, is branched, and bears grape-like sporangia. Spores germinate underground and develop into minute subterranean, non-photosynthetic gametophytes which depend on an endophytic fungus for nourishment.
Diagnostic Characteristics: BOTRYCHIUM MINGANENSE is highly variable, but the dull green color, somewhat fleshy texture, and the many well-divided, relatively narrow, entire-margined pinnae are typical of Montana plants. This species is most easily confused with B. ASCENDENS, B. CRENULATUM, and B. LUNARIA; small plants may also resemble B. MONTANUM and B. SIMPLEX. Reliable field determination of moonworts depends on the careful use of technical keys and comparison with silhouette outlines of verified specimens. Identification can be complicated because there is often a high degree of morphological variability between individuals in a population and between populations of the same species; several species may grow together at the same site, and the few diagnostic characters may not be apparent in small plants.
Habitat Comments: A wide variety of habitats including meadows, prairies, woods, sand dunes and riverbanks (Idaho Native Plant Society, 1993).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Vrilakas, Sue
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Oct1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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