Botrychium gallicomontanum - Farrar & Johnson-Groh
Frenchman's Bluff Moonwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium gallicomontanum Farrar & Johnson-Groh (TSN 506847)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146565
Element Code: PPOPH01150
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium gallicomontanum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known from six occurrences in Minnesota and South Dakota. Threats include herbicide treatment, grazing, and impacts from bordering property activities that include mining.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Minnesota (S1), Montana (S1), South Dakota (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Botrychium gallicomontanum is currently known from six locations: Frenchman's Bluff Prairie Preserve (Norman Co.), Minnesota; Kittson Co., Minnesota; Glacier National Park, Montana; and Pennington County (Black Hills), South Dakota (Farrar 2006).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Currently known from six populations. Two major sites are known in Minnesota; one on Frenchman's Bluff in Norman Co. (may contain two separate populations) and one about 100 miles north in Kittson Co. Extensive searches in similar habitats of western Minnesota has not located additional populations. Two other sites are known in the western part of Glacier National Park, Montana. In 2005 a fifth site was discovered in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota (Farrar 2006). In 2013, a site at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Kittson, MN) was found.

Population Size Comments: Farrar (pers. comm. 1996) estimates that the population at Frenchman's Bluff is between 1,000 and 3,000 plants, although the number of observed above-ground fronds is approximately 500. The total number of individuals in the population is uncertain because all individuals of B. gallicomontanum do not produce fronds every year. The total number of genetic individuals of B. gallicomontanum is also difficult to estimate because this species can reproduce asexually via spherical gemmae at the root bases (Farrar and Johnson-Groh 1990). Most sites have between 30 and 200 plants (NatureServe Central Database 2015).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Botrychium gallicomontanum is threatened by plowing of prairie habitats; encroachment of open habitat by woody plants, such as hawthorn, plum, or dogwood; herbivory or heavy grazing, herbicide, and invasive species. It is likely that additional populations of B. gallicomontanum have existed in the past but have disappeared because of these factors.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Numbers of individuals of B. gallicomontanum declined sharply during and after the 1988 drought in Minnesota. Since 1988, the population seems to have recovered to its pre-drought level.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vulnerable to loss of habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Botrychium gallicomontanum is currently known from six locations: Frenchman's Bluff Prairie Preserve (Norman Co.), Minnesota; Kittson Co., Minnesota; Glacier National Park, Montana; and Pennington County (Black Hills), South Dakota (Farrar 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MN, MT, SD

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MN Kittson (27069), Marshall (27089), Norman (27107)
SD Meade (46093), Pennington (46103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
09 Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Thief (09020304)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+
10 Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial fern that produces a yellow-green leaf (the trophophore), 1.4-3.5 cm long, and a spore-bearing spike (the sporophore). Both arise from a common stalk and can be thought of as a single, highly modified fern frond. Leaves appear in mid-spring and die in the summer.
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: In both sparse and dense native prairie vegetation on the top and slopes of a glacial moraine; also known from a montane meadow. Sandy and/or gravelly soils in open areas without woody vegetation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Dec2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO (1996), rev. K. Gravuer (2007), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Farrar, D.R. 2006. June last update. Systematics of moonworts Botrychium subgenus botrychium. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames. Online. Available: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium.html (accessed 2007).

  • Farrar, D.R. and C.L. Johnson-Groh. 1990. Subterranean sporophytic gemmae in moonwort ferns, Botrychium subgenus Botrychium. American Journal of Botany 77(9): 1168-1175.

  • Farrar, D.R., and C.L. Johnson-Groh. 1991. A new prairie moonwort (Botrychium subgenus Botrichium) from northwestern Minnesota. American Fern J. 81(1): 1-6.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 1. Introduction. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

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