Botrychium crenulatum - W.H. Wagner
Crenulate Moonwort
Other English Common Names: dainty moonwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium crenulatum W.H. Wagner (TSN 501019)
French Common Names: botryche crénelé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154829
Element Code: PPOPH010L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium crenulatum
Taxonomic Comments: It has been proposed but not yet published that Botrychium crenulatum be treated as a variety of B. lunaria, to which it is genetically very similar (M. Stensvold 2008 cited by Farrar 2011).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Jan2018
Global Status Last Changed: 23Jan2018
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Uncommon but wide ranging in western North America.  Most populations are small.  Habitat is one of the wettest of Botrychium species.  Threats include logging, grazing, roads/trails, and alterations to hydrology.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (01Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (SH), California (S3), Colorado (S1), Idaho (S1), Montana (S3), Nevada (S1?), Oregon (S2), Utah (S1), Washington (S3), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (S1), British Columbia (S2S3), Newfoundland Island (SU), Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western North America from British Columbia, Alberta and northwestern Montana to Arizona and southern California (Farrar 2011).  Also reported from Ontario and Newfoundland Island (NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017).

Area of Occupancy: 126-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of extant occurrences is in California 125, Idaho 3, Nevada 7, Oregon 68, Utah 2, Wyoming 6, British Columbia 23, Alberta 7, and Ontario 1 (Fertig et al. 2015; CNPS 2018, NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017).  There are 146 observations in Montana (Montana Natural Heritage Program 2018).  Known from one historical occurrence in Arizona, and an unknown number of occurrences in Colorado and Washington (NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017).

Population Size Comments: Many/most populations are very small with only a few plants seen (CNDDB 2016).
 

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened most by logging and grazing; other threats include roads/trails, trampling, recreation, erosion, fuels reduction, ORVs, altered hydrology, soil compaction, invasive species, and climate change (CNDDB 2016; CNPS 2018; Montana Natural Heritage Program 2018; NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017; USFS 2016).

Short-term Trend Comments: Possibly declining in Helena National Forest in Montana where one occurrence is impacted by cattle grazing and the other was not relocated in 2016 (USFS 2016).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western North America from British Columbia, Alberta and northwestern Montana to Arizona and southern California (Farrar 2011).  Also reported from Ontario and Newfoundland Island (NatureServe Network Database as of November 2017).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, NF, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001)*, Coconino (04005)*
CA Alpine (06003), Amador (06005), Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009), Colusa (06011), El Dorado (06017), Fresno (06019), Inyo (06027), Lassen (06035), Los Angeles (06037), Modoc (06049), Mono (06051), Nevada (06057), Placer (06061), Plumas (06063), San Bernardino (06071), Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Tehama (06103), Trinity (06105), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109)
ID Boise (16015), Boundary (16021)*, Clearwater (16035)*, Elmore (16039), Kootenai (16055)
NV Clark (32003), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009)*
OR Baker (41001), Crook (41013), Grant (41023), Harney (41025), Lake (41037), Union (41061), Wallowa (41063), Wheeler (41069)
UT Cache (49005), Daggett (49009)*, Duchesne (49013)*, Juab (49023)*, Summit (49043)*, Wasatch (49051)
WY Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Blacks Fork (14040107)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+*
15 Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+*, Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+*, Black (15060101)+*
16 Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+, Provo (16020203)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+*, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+*, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+, East Walker (16050301)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+*, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+*, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Teton (17040204)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111)+, Upper Malheur (17050116)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Powder (17050203)+, Imnaha (17060102)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+*, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+*, Upper John Day (17070201)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Middle Fork John Day (17070203)+, Beaver-South Fork (17070303)+, Upper Crooked (17070304)+, Silvies (17120002)+, Warner Lakes (17120007)+
18 Trinity (18010211)+, Upper Pit (18020002)+, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, Upper Stony (18020115)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Upper Yuba (18020125)+, North Fork American (18020128)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Upper Kern (18030001)+, South Fork Kern (18030002)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, San Gabriel (18070106)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+, Surprise Valley (18080001)+, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+*, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Wavy Moonwort is a small, perennial fern with a single aboveground frond. The frond is usually 10 cm or less tall, yellow-green, and divided into two segments which share a common stalk. The mostly sterile segment is once pinnatifid with usually three or four well separated pairs of thin textured, broadly fan-shaped pinnae which have distinct veins and crenulate margins. The fertile segment is longer than the sterile segment, is branched (often like a tiny Christmas tree), and bears grape-like sporangia. Spores germinate underground and develop into minute, subterranean, non-photosynthetic gametophytes which depend on an endophytic fungus for nourishment.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Yellow-green color and well separated, thin textured, broadly fan-shaped pinnae with crenulate margins and prominent veins are diagnostic of B. CRENULATUM. It may be easily confused with B. ASCENDENS, B. LUNARIA, and B. MINGANENSE. Reliable field determination of moonworts depends on the careful use of technical keys and comparison with silhouette outlines of verified specimens. Identification can be complicated because there is often a high degree of morphological variability between individuals in a population and between populations of the same species; several species may grow together at the same site, and the few diagnostic characters may not be apparent in small plants.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Wet, marshy, and springy areas, including marshy meadows, edges of marshes, saturated soils of seeps, bottoms and stabilized margins of small streams, and (occasionally) wet roadside swales, ditches, and drainageways. Sites tend to be partly to heavily shaded and usually have a dense, diverse cover of forbs and graminoids. Dominant plant species may include spruce, alders, and dogwood; this species has also been reported from western red cedar habitats. Often found on soils influenced by reprecipitated calcium. At mid to high elevations (montane zone), 1200 - 2500 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Revisit sites to confirm status and threats.  Restrict activities that would influence the canopy structure or hydrology in this species' habitat.  Prevent trampling and impacts to plants from grazing and recreational use.  Study this species' mycorrhizal relationships and requirements to help inform management.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Distinct location with more than one individual.
Separation Barriers: Occurrences should be considered distinct if they are separated from existing occurrences by more than one mile, or if the occurrences are separated markedly by distinct features on the landscape such as ridges, rivers, or roads.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.6 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1.6 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Author: Colorado NHP
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: SIZE: The population numbers 100 or more aboveground plants (Vanderhorst 1997) at some point during a 5-year period. CONDITION: The occurrence should have an excellent likelihood of long-term viability (successful sporophore production is observed indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact). This occurrence should be in a high-quality site (i.e. less than 1% cover exotic plant species and/or no significant human disturbances). LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes and natural disturbance regime needed to sustain this species.
Good Viability: SIZE: The population numbers 10 to 99 aboveground plants at some point during a 5-year period. CONDITION: The population numbers 10 to 99 aboveground plants at some point during a 5-year period. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability (successful sporophore production is observed indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact) with little human disturbance. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover.
Fair Viability: SIZE: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes and natural disturbance regime needed to sustain this species but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans. CONDITION: The population consists of a few (generally less than 10) aboveground stems each year. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occupied habitat may be a small area not yet invaded by successional species, or it may be a larger area with sections of significant overgrowth and shading. The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable (with successful sporophore production observed indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact). The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of human disturbance).
Poor Viability: SIZE: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes and natural disturbance regime needed to sustain the species are still intact. CONDITION: Only 1 or 2 above ground plants. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The habitat is degraded by human activities or overgrown by successional plant species that shade out this species. Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor sporophore production or herbivory resulting in sporophore removal). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance.
Justification: SIZE: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. CONDITION: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Jan2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Tomaino, A.
Management Information Edition Date: 23Jan2018
Management Information Edition Author: Tomaino, A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Oct1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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