Botrychium campestre - W.H. Wagner & Farrar ex W.H. & F. Wagner
Prairie Dunewort
Other English Common Names: Iowa Moonwort, Plains Grapefern, Prairie Moonwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium campestre W.H. Wagner & Farrar (TSN 501018)
French Common Names: botryche champÍtre, botryche des champs
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145970
Element Code: PPOPH010W0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium campestre
Taxonomic Comments: Botrychium campestre is very similar morphologically and shares a high degree of genetic similiarity to B. lineare.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jul2002
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Botrychium campestre occurs over a fairly broad range in the northern United States and Canada but it is rare in most of this range, with a few areas of modest concentration and several isolated, disjunct populations. However it is inconspicuous and difficult to locate, search efforts early in the spring, suitable for this species, will most likely reveal additional populations as well as provide better assessment of known populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (17Sep2010)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Colorado (S1), Illinois (S1), Iowa (S2), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (S3), Montana (S1S2), Nebraska (S1), New York (SH), North Dakota (S1), Oregon (S1), South Dakota (S2S3), Vermont (S1), Wisconsin (S1), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (S1), Manitoba (S1), New Brunswick (SH), Ontario (S1), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Botrychium campestre has a wide range with disjunct populations. It is most common in Minnesota, Iowa and Michigan, however ranges west to Washington and Oregon in the U.S. and northward in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario in Canada (Kartesz 1999). It ranges as far south as northeastern Colorado. Despite this wide range, populations appear to be concentrated in the Great Lakes region with a few widely separated occurrences elsewhere. Populations east of the Great Lakes (historial occurrences in New York and New Brunswick) may need verification. The reported occurrence in Newfoundland has been revised to B. ascendens.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: MN: Hole-in-the-Mountain, Lincoln Co. and Frenchman's Bluff Preserve, Norman Co.; MI: Sleeping Bear Dunes (Lake Michigan), Grand Sable Dunes (Lake Superior), Crawford Co., Garden City (South Manitoba Island), Chippewa Co.; Ontario, CANADA: Marathon, Thunder Bay District; IA: Dickinson Co., Fremont Co., Monona Co., Plymouth Co., Pottawattamie Co., Woodbury Co.; ND; NE; OR: Hurricane Creek, Wallowa Co.; Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, CANADA. Historical records from NY, and specimens of questionable id. from New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Quebec, CANADA. (Coffin & Pfannmuller (eds.), 1988; Wagner & Wagner, 1990). Populations of B. campestre east of the Great Lakes need verification. Revisited location in NF identified as B. ascendens (Farrar pers. comm. 2002, IN Anderson & Cariveau 2003).

2 EOs in CO, 1 in IL, 5 in IA, 10 in MI, 54 in MN, 5 in MT, 1 in NE, 1 in ND, 1 in OR, 5 in SD, 4 in WI, 1 in WY; USA; 4 in AB, 1 in MB, 1 in SK, 1 in ON; CANADA.
Because Botrychium campestre is extremely inconspicuous as well as very early phenology, occurrences of this species are likely underdocumented.

Population Size Comments: Because this species is inconspicuous and the root bases do not produce an aboveground leaf every year, the sizes of populations are very difficult to estimate. Some sites are known with populations of at least 100 plants, however the majority of populations consist only of a few to a half dozen individuals. Botrychiums also can exist within 'genus communities' of many Botrychium species, making specific population numbers for each species difficult to assess. B. campestre with its very early phenology may also be missed with the timing of surveys.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Many EOs are only verified as extant with viability not assessed. Many occurrences in Minnesota and several in South Dakota and Michigan are considered good to fair estimated viability. Overall 31% of all EOs are considered excellent, good or fair viability.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat to Botrychium campestre is the loss of habitat - the historic and present plowing of native prairies. This species requires unaltered prairie habitat and has never been found in any area that has been historically plowed. Other possible threats are pasturing, the invasion of cool-season grasses, and successional overgrowth, although the degree of impact for these factors, including fire, needs to be studied. Climate change, which could bring increased drought to some areas could have serious impacts (Anderson and Cariveau 2003).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Detailed ecological monitoring of B. campestre in western Minnesota including long-term tracking of individual plants indicates that in general the plants had become smaller and fewer throughout its range (Johnson-Groh and Farrar, 1989). Data is insufficient to evaluate rangewide population trends and local population trends can show high variation between years (Anderson and Cariveau 2003).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Historically B. campestre populations probably were more prevalent. Continued alteration of prairie habitat for agriculture will reduce available habitat. B. campestre has never been located in historically plowed habitat. This combined with mycorrhizae dependency make restoration efforts impossible. Drought is a most significant factor for stalk emergence and survival, hence climate change with more drought conditions may influence populations. (Anderson and Cariveau 2003).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: specific reproductive biology, low dispersal capability, reduced habitat and genetic connectivity

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: loess unaltered prairie habitat, mycorrhizal dependency, narrow window of opportunity for growth and reproduction due to ephemeral soil moisture availability (Anderson and Cariveau 2003)

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Botrychium campestre has a wide range with disjunct populations. It is most common in Minnesota, Iowa and Michigan, however ranges west to Washington and Oregon in the U.S. and northward in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario in Canada (Kartesz 1999). It ranges as far south as northeastern Colorado. Despite this wide range, populations appear to be concentrated in the Great Lakes region with a few widely separated occurrences elsewhere. Populations east of the Great Lakes (historial occurrences in New York and New Brunswick) may need verification. The reported occurrence in Newfoundland has been revised to B. ascendens.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, IA, IL, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NY, OR, SD, VT, WI, WY
Canada AB, MB, NB, ON, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Yuma (08125)
IA Black Hawk (19013), Butler (19023), Cerro Gordo (19033), Cherokee (19035), Clinton (19045), Delaware (19055), Dickinson (19059), Floyd (19067), Franklin (19069), Fremont (19071), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Monona (19133), O Brien (19141), Plymouth (19149), Pottawattamie (19155), Winneshiek (19191), Woodbury (19193)
IL Kane (17089)
MI Alger (26003), Benzie (26019), Chippewa (26033), Delta (26041), Leelanau (26089)
MN Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Big Stone (27011), Carver (27019), Clay (27027), Crow Wing (27035), Douglas (27041), Fillmore (27045), Houston (27055), Itasca (27061), Kandiyohi (27067), Kittson (27069), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lincoln (27081), Marshall (27089), Murray (27101), Norman (27107), Olmsted (27109), Otter Tail (27111), Pipestone (27117), Polk (27119), Pope (27121), Roseau (27135), St. Louis (27137), Traverse (27155), Wabasha (27157), Winona (27169)
ND McHenry (38049)*
NE Brown (31017)
NY Onondaga (36067)*
OR Wallowa (41063)
SD Brown (46013), Custer (46033), Gregory (46053), Pennington (46103)
VT Bennington (50003)
WI Dane (55025), Door (55029), Iowa (55049), Kenosha (55059), Sheboygan (55117)
WY Crook (56011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+
04 St. Louis (04010201)+, Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Carp-Pine (04070002)+, Oneida (04140202)+*
07 Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Crow (07010204)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Root (07040008)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+
09 Lower Souris (09010003)+*, Willow (09010004)+*, Bois De Sioux (09020101)+, Otter Tail (09020103)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Thief (09020304)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Snake (09020309)+, Lower Red (09020311)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+
10 Beaver (10120107)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+*, Redwater (10120203)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Upper James (10160003)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Floyd (10230002)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Maple (10230005)+, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Boyer (10230007)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, South Fork Republican (10250003)+
17 Wallowa (17060105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Prairie moonwort, prairie dunewort; Adder's-tongue family (Ophioglossaceae). A tiny, erect, perennial fern with one fleshy blade per plant. Small size from 5 to 10 cm tall. Earliest phenology of the Botrychiums. Underground gemmae or vegetative propagules on subterranean gametophytes. Obligately dependent on mycorrhizal fungi.
General Description: Prairie Dunewort is a small perennial fern with a single aboveground frond which stands 6-12 cm tall. The frond is divided into two segments, one sterile, one fertile, which share a common stalk; the common stalk is usually 5-10 cm long. The sterile segment is dull, whitish-green, fleshy, usually widest above the middle, and with usually less than six pairs of widely spaced upswept pinnae. The pinnae are linear to spatula shaped; the largest are often bifid at the tip, with the upper division being larger than the lower. The fertile segment is stubby, about as long as or somewhat longer than the sterile segment, and is branched with fleshy, somewhat flattened branches bearing grape-like clusters of sporangia which contain thousands of spores. Spores germinate underground and develop into minute, subterranean, non-photosynthetic gametophytes.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Most similar to BOTRYCHIUM MINGANENSE and B. LINEARE, which also have relatively narrow, widely spaced pinnae. Distinguished from B. MINGANENSE by having a sterile frond segment with smaller, narrower, more dissected, and usually fewer pinnae, a more fleshier axis, and smaller spores, which reflect a lower chromosome number. Distinguished from B. LINEARE by having a sterile frond segment with a fleshier, broader axis and usually somewhat wider pinnae, and by having a fleshier, shorter fertile frond segment.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Occurs primarily on well-drained dry-to-mesic soils in sunlit, non-forested habitats at low elevations (ca. 300-1500m), although it may grow under shrubs in or at the margins of these habitats. Habitats include lightly vegetated Great Lakes sand dunes, often under shrubs of Juniperus communis; short- to mid-grass prairies and fields on limestone (often shallow-soil glades), glacial moraines, glacial till, and hills of glacial loess, either in the open prairie or under native shrubs such as Cornus around the margin; moist meadows in the valley zones of the Northwest; open-canopied Juniperus virginiana-Populus deltoides riparian forest, semi-shady mixed deciduous and Pinus ponderosa forest, and Pinus ponderosa savanna on sandy soils; grassy railroad sidings and ditches; and sparsely vegetated mineral soil. Within prairies and fields, appears to prefer dry, gravelly, exposed areas, such as north-facing hillsides. Less associated with disturbance than many moonwort species; does not need direct sunlight and can compete in somewhat dense prairie vegetation. However, habitats usually feature considerable open surface through which spores can access mineral soil. Associated species include Schizachyrium scoparium, Astragalus crassicarpus, and Amorpha canescens. 50 - 1500 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Apr1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO; rev. M. Anions (2008)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Oct1997
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KAJ

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Williston, P. 2001. The Botrychium of Alberta. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 57p.

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