Botrychium ascendens - W.H. Wagner
Upward-lobed Moonwort
Other English Common Names: Triangle-lobe Moonwort, upswept moonwort
Other Common Names: trianglelobe moonwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium ascendens W.H. Wagner (TSN 501017)
French Common Names: botryche ascendant
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133668
Element Code: PPOPH010S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium ascendens
Taxonomic Comments: Wagner (in FNA Vol.2) notes that B. ascendens is a distinctive species "that grows with B. crenulatum, B. lunaria, and B. minganense. This species and B. pedunculosum [which has a similar range, but is not known from Alaska] are the only grapeferns that often have extra sporangia on the proximal pinnae."
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 01Nov2011
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Botrychium ascendens is widely scattered and appears rare, however is found across North America . Populations appear to all be small (Fertig 2000). However, due to the small size of the plants and the scattered habitat, this species may be more abundant than presently known (Fertig 2000).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (01Jun2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (S2), California (S2), Colorado (S1), Idaho (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S2S3), Nevada (S1), Oregon (S2), Vermont (S1), Washington (S2), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S2), British Columbia (S2), Newfoundland Island (S1), Ontario (S1), Quebec (S1), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Widely scattered in western North America. Occurs from Alaska south to California and Nevada, northeast to Montana and Wyoming; historic in Ontario (Kartesz 1999).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: May be threatened by changes in the hydrology of its streamside habitat (Fertig 2000). May also be threatened by small animal herbivory and flooding (Vanderhorst 1997).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Widely scattered in western North America. Occurs from Alaska south to California and Nevada, northeast to Montana and Wyoming; historic in Ontario (Kartesz 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, ID, MN, MT, NV, OR, VT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, NF, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Aleutians East (02013), Denali (02068), Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon (CA) (02232), Yakutat (02282)
CA Alpine (06003), Butte (06007), El Dorado (06017), Fresno (06019), Lassen (06035), Modoc (06049), Mono (06051), Nevada (06057), Placer (06061), Plumas (06063), Shasta (06089), Tehama (06103), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109)
ID Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021), Shoshone (16079)
MN Crow Wing (27035), Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071), Lake of the Woods (27077), Roseau (27135), St. Louis (27137)
NV Clark (32003)
OR Baker (41001), Grant (41023), Wallowa (41063), Wheeler (41069)
VT Bennington (50003)
WA Ferry (53019), King (53033), Mason (53045), Okanogan (53047), Pend Oreille (53051), Pierce (53053), Stevens (53065), Whatcom (53073)
WY Fremont (56013), Johnson (56019), Park (56029)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+
04 St. Louis (04010201)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+
09 Roseau (09020314)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+, Lower Rainy (09030008)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Clear (10090206)+
15 Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+
16 Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+, East Walker (16050301)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+*
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Kettle (17020002)+, Colville (17020003)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Similkameen (17020007)+, Methow (17020008)+, Upper Malheur (17050116)+, Powder (17050203)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, Upper John Day (17070201)+, Upper Crooked (17070304)+, Nooksack (17110004)+, Upper Skagit (17110005)+, Puyallup (17110014)+, Skokomish (17110017)+
18 Lower Pit (18020003)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, North Fork American (18020128)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, South Fork Kern (18030002)+, Upper King (18030010)+*, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, Surprise Valley (18080001)+, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+
19 Glacier Bay (19010302)+, Yakutat Bay (19010401)+, Cold Bay (19030101)+, Port Heiden (19030201)+, Nenana River (19040508)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
General Description: Upward-lobed Moonwort is a small, perennial fern with a single aboveground frond. The frond is usually about 10 cm tall, yellow-green, and divided into two segments which share a common stalk. The mostly sterile segment is once pinnatifid with up to six pairs of strongly ascending, narrowly triangular pinnae which have deeply lacerate margins. The sterile segment often has a few sporangia on the margins of the pinnae or on small branches. The fertile segment is longer than the sterile segment, is branched, and bears grape-like sporangia. Spores germinate underground and develop into minute, subterranean, non-photosynthetic gametophytes which depend on an endophytic fungus for nourishment.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Strongly ascending pinnae with lacerate margins and a yellow-green color are diagnostic of B. ASCENDENS. It may be easily confused with B. CRENULATUM, B. MINGANENSE, and B. MONTANUM. Reliable field determination of moonworts depends on the careful use of technical keys and on comparison with silhouette outlines of verified specimens. Identification can be complicated because there is often a high degree of morphological variability between individuals in a population and between populations of the same species; several species may grow together at the same site. Also, the few diagnostic characters may not be apparent in small plants.
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Lower montane coniferous forest (mesic).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18May1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: D. Gries (1997), rev. L. Morse (1998, 1999), rev. A. Olivero (2003)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jun1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KAJ

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., and D.J. White, eds. 1982. Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario. Part 1. National Museum Natural Science, Ottawa.

  • Beatty, B. L., W. F. Jennings, and R. C. Rawlinson. 2003. Botrychium ascendens (trianglelobe moonwort), B. crenulatum (scalloped moonwort), and B. lineare (narrowleaf grapefern): A Technical Conservation Assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/Botrychiumlineare.pdf.

  • Cayouette, J. 2002a. Deux nouvelles indigènes pour le Québec, l'affaire de deux Jacques. ALVAREKA 64 (collection éditée par l'auteur, non publiée). 6 p.

  • Clark, T. W., A. H. Harvey, R. D. Dorn, D. L. Genter, and C. Groves. 1989. Rare, sensitive, and threatened species of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative, Montana Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, and Mountain West Environmental Services.

  • Cody, W.J. 1996. The flora of the Yukon Territory. National Research Council of Canada Research Press, Ottawa, Canada. 643 pp.

  • Croft, L.K., W.R. Owen, and J.S. Shelly. 1997. Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Analysis of Vascular Plants. US Forest Service.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Evert, E. F. 2010. Vascular Plants of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Annotated Catalog and Atlas. Park Ridge, IL.

  • Farrar, D. R. and S. J. Popovich. 2012. Ophioglossaceae. Pages 24-35 Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope, fourth edition. W.A. Weber and R.C. Wittmann. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. State Species Abstract: Botrychium ascendens. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

  • Fertig, W. 1994. Guide to Sensitive Wyoming plants of US Forest Service Region 2 (with emphasis on plants of Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone National Forests). Unpublished report prepared as a handout for the TES species identification workshop conducted for US Forest Service Region 2 in Laramie, WY, 11 May 1994.

  • Fertig, W. 1995. Report on the potential vulnerability of Shoshone National Forest Candidate and Sensitive plant species to livestock grazing. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 1998. The status of rare plants on Shoshone National Forest: 1995-97 survey results. Unpublished report prepared for the Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. November 24-last update. Botrychium ascendens State Species Abstract. Online. Available: http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/WYNDD/PDF_files/Plant_Summaries/B/Botrychium%20ascendens.pdf. Accessed 2003, May 6.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. Rare vascular plant species in the Wyoming portion of the Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Ecoregion. Prepared for the Wyoming Nature Conservancy by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W., C. Refsdal, and J. Whipple. 1994. Wyoming Rare Plant Field Guide. Wyoming Rare Plant Technical Committee, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 2 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Hauk, W. D. and C. H. Haufler. 1999. Isozyme variability among cryptic species of Botrychium subgenus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). American Journal of Botany 86:614-633.

  • Houston, K.E., W.J. Hartung and C.J. Hartung. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84, Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station.

  • Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game (IDFG). 1999. Idaho Species of Special Concern. Online: http://www.state.id.us/fishgame/ngconcrn.htm.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and C. Meacham. 1998a. Unpublished review draft of Floristic Synthesis, 8 Jan. 1998. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Labrecque, J. 2007. Exploration et inventaire des sites de Botrychium ascendens, Réserve de parc national du Canada de l'Archipel-de-Mingan, 17 au 21 juillet 2006. Rapport préparé pour Réserve de parc national du Canada de l'Archipel-de-Mingan, Parcs Cana

  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Lesica, P. and K. Ahlenslager. 1989. Demographic monitoring of three species of BOTRYCHIUM (Ophioglossaceae) in Waterton Lakes Park, Alberta. Unpublished 1989 progress report, 5 pp. plus appendices.

  • Lesica, P. and K. Ahlenslager. 1989. Demographic monitoring of three species of BOTRYCHIUM (Ophioglossaceae) in Waterton Lakes Park, Alberta. Unpublished 1989 progress report, 5 pp. plus appendices.

  • Lipkin, R. and D.F. Murray. 1997. Alaska rare plant field guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska Natural Heritage Program, and U.S. Forest Service. 84 pp. (unpaginated)

  • Mantas, M. and R. S. Wirt. 1995. Moonworts of western Montana (BOTRYCHIUM subgenus BOTRYCHIUM). Flathead National Forest. 103 pp.

  • Mantas, M. and R. S. Wirt. 1995. Moonworts of western Montana (BOTRYCHIUM subgenus BOTRYCHIUM). Flathead National Forest. 103 pp.

  • Mills, S. and W. Fertig. 1996. Field guide to rare and Sensitive plants of the Shoshone National Forest. Report prepared by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Mills, S. and W. Fertig. 1996. Survey of plant species of special concern on the Shoshone National Forest, 1995. Unpublished report prepared for Shoshone National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Montana Natural Heritage Program. 2003. 3 September 2002 last update. Botrychium ascendens W.H. Wagner. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Online. Available: http://nhp.nris.state.mt.us/plants/pguide.asp (Accessed 2003).

  • Morefield, J.D., editor. 2001. Nevada rare plant atlas [with rare plant fact sheets]. Available as a pdf file at: http://heritage.nv.gov/atlas/atlas.html. Compiled by the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Reno, Nevada.

  • Paris, C. A., F. S. Wagner and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 1989. Cryptic species, species delimitation, and taxonomic practice in the homosporus ferns. Amer. Fern J. 79:46-54.

  • Paris, C. A., F. S. Wagner and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 1989. Cryptic species, species delimitation, and taxonomic practice in the homosporus ferns. Amer. Fern J. 79:46-54.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1997 (1994). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 1997 Electronic Inventory Update of 1994 5th edition, California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1, Sacramento.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 1997. Conservation assessment of sensitive moonwarts (Botrychium subgenus Botrychium) on the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 82 pp. plus appendices

  • Vanderhorst, J. 1997. Conservation assessment of sensitive moonworts (Ophioglossaceaee; Botrychium subgenus Botrychium) on the Kootenai National Forest. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 82 pp + appendices.

  • Wagner Jr., W. H. and F. S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76:33-47.

  • Wagner, D. H. 1992. Guide to the species of BOTRYCHIUM in Oregon, November 1992. Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service. 19 pp., plus figures.

  • Wagner, D.H. 1992. Guide to the species of Botrychium in Oregon. Biology Dept., University of Oregon, Eugene. 19 pp. + Figures.

  • Wagner, D.H. 1992. Guide to the species of Botrychium in Oregon. Unpublished report prepared by the University Herbarium, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

  • Wagner, Jr., W. H. and F. S. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, BOTRYCHIUM subg. BOTRYCHIUM (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. Amer. Fern J. 71:20-30.

  • Wagner, Jr., W. H., F. S. Wagner, C. Haufler and J. K. Emerson. 1984. A new nothospecies of moonwort (Ophioglossaceae, BOTRYCHIUM). Canadian Journal of Botany 62:629-634.

  • Wagner, Jr., W. H., F. S. Wagner, C. Haufler and J. K. Emerson. 1984. A new nothospecies of moonwort (Ophioglossaceae, BOTRYCHIUM). Canadian Journal of Botany 62:629-634.

  • Wagner, Jr., W.H., and F.S. Wagner. 1990. Notes on the fan-leaflet group of moonworts in North America with descriptions of two new members. American Fern Journal 80(3):73-81.

  • Wagner, W. H., Jr. and F. S. Wagner. 1990. Notes on the fan-leaflet group of moonworts in North America with descriptions of two new members. American Fern Journal 80:73-81.

  • Wagner, W. and F. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (BOTRYCHIUM subgenus BOTRYCHIUM) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2):3347.

  • Wagner, W.H. Jr. and F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2):33-47.

  • Wagner, W.H. et F.S. Wagner 1990b. Moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) of the Upper Great Lakes Region, U.S.A. and Canada, with description of two new species. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 17 : 313-325.

  • Wagner, W.H., Jr., and F. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. American Fern J. 71(1):20, 26.

  • Welp, L., W.F. Fertig, G.P. Jones, G.P. Beauvais, and S.M. Ogle. 2000. Fine filter analysis of the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone National Forests in Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Williston, P. 2001. The Botrychium of Alberta. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 57p.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.