Bos taurus - Linnaeus, 1758
Aurochs
Other English Common Names: Aurochs, Domestic Cow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 183838)
French Common Names: vache domestique
Spanish Common Names: Vaca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101991
Element Code: AMALE10010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Artiodactyla Bovidae Bos
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bos taurus
Taxonomic Comments: See Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) for a discussion of the relationships and taxonomy of Bos taurus, B. primigenius, and B. indicus, here regarded as conspecific.

Woodward and Sponenberg (1992) specified any remaining cattle in Okefenokee Swamp and possibly the cattle on Hawaii as important stores of genetic variation.

See Georgiadis et al. (1991) for a phylogeny of the Bovidae based on allozyme divergence among 27 species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 19Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (27Jul2004)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Hawaii (SNA)
Canada Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Distributed worldwide in domestication. Feral populations occur on Kauai, Molokai, and Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands; see Tomich (1986) and Kramer (1971) for extensive accounts of historical and current status in Hawaii; Spain; France; Australia; New Guinea; U.S.; Colombia; Argentina; Galapagos; Hispaniola; Tristan da Cunha; New Amsterdam; and Juan Fernandez Islands (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). The Eurasian-North African progenitor of domestic cattle is extinct.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Distributed worldwide in domestication. Feral populations occur on Kauai, Molokai, and Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands; see Tomich (1986) and Kramer (1971) for extensive accounts of historical and current status in Hawaii; Spain; France; Australia; New Guinea; U.S.; Colombia; Argentina; Galapagos; Hispaniola; Tristan da Cunha; New Amsterdam; and Juan Fernandez Islands (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993). The Eurasian-North African progenitor of domestic cattle is extinct.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HIexotic
Canada SKexotic

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005

Ecology & Life History
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Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Species Impacts: Cattle may counteract efforts to protect native plants: grazing suppresses reproduction of koa in Hawaii (Baldwin and Fagerlund 1943). See Cuddihy (1984) for more information on effects of grazing on native Hawaiian flora.

See Loft et al. (1987) and Kie (1991) for information on the impacts of cattle grazing on mule deer in California. See Telfer (1994) for information on cattle-cervid interactions in Alberta. See Kochert et al. (1988) for effects of livestock grazing on raptors in the southwestern U.S. See also Uresk and Paulson (1988), Oldemeyer et al. (1988), and Samson et al. (1988).

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baldwin, P. H., and G. O. Fagerlund. 1943. The effect of cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park. Ecology 24:118-122.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: <http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf> (Accessed April 1, 2015)

  • Cuddihy, L. W. 1984. Effects of cattle grazing on the mountain parkland ecosystem, Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Botany Dept., Univ. Hawaii. CPSU/UH Tech. Rep. 51. 135 pp.

  • Georgiadis, N. J., P. Kat, H. Oketch, and J. Patton. 1991. Allozyme divergence within the Bovidae. Evolution 44:2135-2149.

  • Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk Project. 2005. Information index for selected alien vertebrates in Hawaii. Internet resource available at http://www.hear.org/alienspeciesinhawaii/InfoIndexVertebrates.htm. Downloaded 31 March 2005.

  • Kie, J. G. 1991. Foraging behavior by mule deer: the influence of cattle grazing. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:665-674.

  • Kochert, M. N., B. A. Millsap, and K. Steenhof. 1988. Effects of livestock grazing on raptors with emphasis on the southwestern U.S. Pages 325-334 in Glinski et al., eds. Proc. Southwest raptor management symposium and workshop. Nat. Wildl. Fed. Sci. and Tech. Ser. No. 11.

  • Kramer, R. J. 1971. Hawaiian land mammals. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo, Japan. 347 pp.

  • Lever, C. 1985. Naturalized mammals of the world. Longman Group Limited, England.

  • Loft, E. R., et al. 1987. Influence of cattle stocking rate on the structural profile of deer hiding cover. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:655-664.

  • Oldemeyer, J. L., and L. R. Allen-Johnson. 1988. Cattle grazing and small mammals on the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. Pages 391-398 in B88SZA01NA.

  • Samson, F. B., F. L. Knopf, and L. B. Hass. 1988. Small mammal response to the introduction of cattle into a cottonwood floodplain. Pages 432-438 in B88SZA01NA.

  • Telfer, E. S. 1994. Cattle and cervid interactions on a foothills watershed in southwestern Alberta. Can. Field-Nat. 108:1860194.

  • Tirira, D. 1999. Mamíferos del Ecuador. Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.

  • Tomich, P. Q. 1986. Mammals in Hawai'i. A synopsis and notational bibliography. Second edition. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 375 pp.

  • Uresk, D. W., and D. D. Paulson. 1988. Estimated carrying capacity for cattle competing with prairie dogs and forage utilization in western South Dakota. Pages 387-390 in B88SZA01NA.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswcfapp/msw/index.cfm

  • Woodward, S. L., and D. P. Sponenberg. 1992. Feral livestock in America: identification of populations important for the conservation of genetic diversity. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 148.

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