Bombus citrinus - (Smith, 1854)
Lemon Cuckoo Bumble Bee
Synonym(s): Bombus (Psithyrus) citrinus (Smith, 1854) ;Psithyrus citrinus (Smith, 1854) ;Psithyrus laboriosus (Fabricius)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bombus citrinus (Smith, 1854) (TSN 714794)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.819653
Element Code: IIHYM24330
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Bumble Bees
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Hymenoptera Apidae Bombus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Williams, P. H. 2008a. Bombus, bumblebees of the world. Web pages based on Williams, P.H. 1998. An annotated checklist of bumblebees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology) 67:79-152. Online. Available: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/index.html. Accessed 2008-Oct.
Concept Reference Code: W08WIL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bombus (Psithyrus) citrinus
Taxonomic Comments: Subgenus: Psithyrus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Sep2009
Global Status Last Changed: 15Sep2009
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Despite the documented decline in Ontario, there is no evidence this species is disappearing on a large scale. It is still being found widely from New York City gardens to Illinois aglands. Its primary host, Bombus impatiens, is probably the most abundant bumblebee in North America, and one of several that is documented as increasing. However, the other known host, B. vagans, is reportedly declining rather widely. This species probably should be assigned a conservation status rank of G5, but there is still some uncertainty.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (14Jun2010)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Jun2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S4), Maine (SU), Maryland (SU), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S5), Pennsylvania (SNR), Vermont (S2S3), Virginia (SU), Wisconsin (S3)
Canada Manitoba (S3S4), New Brunswick (SU), Newfoundland Island (SU), Nova Scotia (S4S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (SU), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Roughly New Brunswick west at least through Ontario and into Nebraska, south to Georgia and Alabama. Although widespread, this species seems more northern, eastern, and montane than its primary host. There was a collection of this species in Vermont in 2007 (Rolnick, 2007) and numerous other recent studies have reported this species, including Gardner and Ascher (2006), Matteson et al. (2008), Fetridge et al. (2008) in New York (including New York City gardens), Tuell et al. (2008) in Michigan, Grixti et al. (2009) in Illinois, Golig and Ellis (2006) in Nebraska, and Colla and Packer (2008) in southern Ontario.

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown
Viability/Integrity Comments: Probably hundreds but it is possible there are unknown threats.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Unless something happens to the main host, the abundant and rapidly increasing Bombus impatiens, B. citrinus is probably not threatened.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Overall, this species is probably close to stable or increasing a bit. It primary host, Bombus impatiens, is increasing and very abundant, although a secondary host, B. vagans, is declining. Grixti et al. (2009) found that the range within Illinois has not changed much since 1900, while there may have been a slight increase in relative abundance since 2000. In contrast, Colla and Packer (2008) found a significant decline in Ontario, but the species was still found. No other reports of major changes in abundance were found and the species is still widespread at least northward.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vulnerable to declines of its host species.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Roughly New Brunswick west at least through Ontario and into Nebraska, south to Georgia and Alabama. Although widespread, this species seems more northern, eastern, and montane than its primary host. There was a collection of this species in Vermont in 2007 (Rolnick, 2007) and numerous other recent studies have reported this species, including Gardner and Ascher (2006), Matteson et al. (2008), Fetridge et al. (2008) in New York (including New York City gardens), Tuell et al. (2008) in Michigan, Grixti et al. (2009) in Illinois, Golig and Ellis (2006) in Nebraska, and Colla and Packer (2008) in southern Ontario.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NE, NH, NJ, NY, PA, VA, VT, WI
Canada MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Food Comments: This is one of the cuckoo bumblebees that usurps the nest (and kills the queen) of other species. This one uses primarily the abundant Bombus (Pyrobombus) impatiens but also at least B. (P. ) vagans (Mitchell, 1962).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Sep2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.; Capuano, N.A.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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