Bombus borealis - Kirby, 1837
Northern Amber Bumble Bee
Synonym(s): Bombus (Subterraneobombus) borealis Kirby, 1837
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bombus borealis Kirby, 1837 (TSN 714789)
French Common Names: bourdon boréal
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.110748
Element Code: IIHYM24080
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Bumble Bees
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Hymenoptera Apidae Bombus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Williams, P. H. 2008a. Bombus, bumblebees of the world. Web pages based on Williams, P.H. 1998. An annotated checklist of bumblebees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology) 67:79-152. Online. Available: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/index.html. Accessed 2008-Oct.
Concept Reference Code: W08WIL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bombus (Subterraneobombus) borealis
Taxonomic Comments: Subgenus: Subterraneobombus.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Sep2009
Global Status Last Changed: 04Sep2009
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: A widespread northern species not known to be declining widely, and known to be common in some places. This species is uncommon in southern parts of the range such as southern Ontario (Colla et al., 2006), but not in apparent decline there (Colla and Packer, 2008). This species will probably prove to be G5, but considering rapid changes in abundance of many bumblebees and limited information on this species, a conservation status rank of G4G5 seems more appropriate.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (14Jun2010)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Jun2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S4), Illinois (SX), Indiana (SH), Maine (S4S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New York (S1), Pennsylvania (SX), Vermont (S4S5), Wisconsin (S3), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S5), Labrador (SU), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S4S5), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Labrador to Alberta in Canada. In the U.S., all of the border states except Ohio, and also South Dakota and formerly northern Illinois.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Apparently is not being seriously impacted by pathogen spillover. Threats are probably low overall but information is minimal.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Except for Grixti et al. 2009 referring mostly to Illinois, which they point out approaches a worst case scenario, and is also on the edge of the range, this species has not been noted as declining. Colla and Packer (2008) found no evidence of decline in southern Ontario, which is also quite far south in the range, and Williams et al. (2009) assign it a very low decline measure there. Turnock et al. (2007) found this bumble bee to be common in Manitoba from 1986-1993.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Probably has disappeared more widely in the Midwest than just Illinois, but this is a small and peripheral part of its range

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Queens of this species begin activity later in the season than most others (Grixti et al., 2009), a trait that is shown by Williams et al. (2009) to predispose bumblebees to declines in various parts of the world.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Labrador to Alberta in Canada. In the U.S., all of the border states except Ohio, and also South Dakota and formerly northern Illinois.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, ILextirpated, IN, ME, MI, MN, MT, NH, NY, PAextirpated, VT, WI, WY
Canada AB, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NY Hamilton (36041), Tompkins (36109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Upper Hudson (02020001)+, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+
04 Seneca (04140201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Sep2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.; Capuano, N.A.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abbott, V. A., J. L. Nadeau, H. A. Higo, and M. L. Winston. 2008. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachildae). Journal of Economic Entomology 101:784-796.

  • Bachman, S., J. Moat, A. Hill, J. de la Torre, and B. Scott. 2011. Supporting red list threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: Smith, V. and L. Penev (Eds) e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150: 117-126. (Version BETA). Available online at: http://rlat.kew.org/editor.

  • Bhattacharya, M., R.B. Primack, and J. Gerwein. 2003. Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area? Biological Conservation 109(1):37-45.

  • Brown, M.J.F., and R.J. Paxton. 2009. The conservation of bees: a global perspective. Apidologie 40(3):410-416.

  • Byrne, A., and U. Fitzpatrick. 2009. Bee conservation policy at the global, regional and national levels. Apidologie 40(3):194-210.

  • Cameron, S.A., J.D. Lozier, J.P. Strange, J.B. Koch, N. Cordes, L.F. Solter, and T.L. Griswold. 2011. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees. PNAS. 108 (2): 662-667.

  • Carvell, C. 2002. Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under different grasslands management regimes. Biological Conservation 103(1):33-49.

  • Chandler, L. 1950. The Bombidae of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 60:167-177.

  • Colla, S., L. Richardson, and P. Williams. 2011. Bumble bees of the eastern United States.

  • Colla, S., and L. Packer. 2008. Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special reference to Bombus affinis Cresson. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(6):1379-1391.

  • Colla, S.R, M.C Otterstatter, R.J. Gegear, and J.D. Thomson. 2006. Plight of the bumble bee: pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations. Biological Conservation 129(4):461467.

  • Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America (M. Berenbaum, Chair). 2007. Status of pollinators in North America. National Research Council of the National Academies, The National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 307 pp.

  • Danforth, B. N. and K. N. Magnacca. 2002. Bees of New York State. New York State Biodiversity Clearinghouse, New York State Biodiversity Project and New York State Biodiversity Research Institute. Online at http://www.nybiodiversity.org/summaries/bees/index.html

  • DeVore, B. 2009. A sticky situation for pollinators. Minnesota Conservation Volunteer. 2 pp. Accessed September 13, 2009 at http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/volunteer/julaug09/pollinators.html.

  • Dibble, A.C., F.A. Drummond, C. Stubbs, M. Veit, and J.S. Ascher. 2017. Bees of Maine, with a state species checklist. Northeastern Naturalist 24(15):1-48.

  • Donovall, L. R., and D. vanEngelsdorp. 2010. A Checklist of the Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Pennsylvania. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 83(1):7-24.

  • Dramstad, W.E. 1996. Do Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) really forage close to their nests? Journal of Insect Behavior 9(2):163-182.

  • Entomological Society of America. 2006. Insect common names proposed for membership consideration. ESA Newsletter 29(1):4-6.

  • Evans, E., R. Thorp, S. Jepson and S. Hoffman-Black. 2008. Status Review of three formerly common species of bumble bees in the subgenus Bombus. The Xerces Society. 63 pp. Accessed at http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/xerces_2008_bombus_status_review.pdf

  • Federman, A. Plight of the Bumblebee. Earth Island Journal, Autumn, 2009. Earth Island Institute. Online. Available: http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/plight_of_the_bumblebee/

  • Fetridge, E.D, J.S. Ascher, and G. A. Langellotto. 2008. The bee fauna of residential gardens in a suburb of New York City (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(6):1067-1077.

  • Frankie, G.W., R.W. Thorp, J. Hernandez, M. Rizzardi, B. Ertter, J.C. Pawelek, S.L. Witt, M. Schindler, R. Coville, and V.A. Wojcik. 2009. Native bees are a rich natural resource in urban California gardens. California Agriculture 63(3):113-120.

  • Frison, T.H. 1919. Keys for the separation of the Bremidae, or bumblebees, of Illinois, and other notes. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 12:157-166.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2014. Manitoba bee species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Gibbs J., J.S. Ascher, M.G. Rightmyer, and R. Isaacs. 2017. The bees of Michigan (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila), with notes on distribution, taxonomy, pollination, and natural history. Zootaxa 4352(1):1-60.

  • Goulson D., M.E. Hanley, B. Darvill, J.S. Ellis, and M.E. Knight. 2005. Causes of rarity in bumblebees. Biological Conservation 122(1):1-8.

  • Grixti, J.C., L.T. Wong, S.A. Cameron, and C. Favret. 2008. Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest. Biological Conservation 142; 75-84

  • Grixti, J.C., L.T. Wong, S.A. Cameron, and C. Favret. 2009. Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest. Biological Conservation 142(1):75-84.

  • Hatfield, R., S. Colla, S. Jepsen, L. Richardson, R. Thorp, and S. F. Jordan. 2014. IUCN assessments for North American Bombus spp. Technical report for the North American IUCN Bumble Bee Specialist Group. Assessments completed 2014, document updated in February 2015. 56 pp.

  • Hines, H., and S.D. Hendrix. 2005. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) diversity and abundance in tallgrass prairie patches: the effects of local and landscape features. Environmental Entomology 34(6):1477-1484.

  • Hopwood, J.L. 2008. The contribution of roadside grassland restorations to native bee conservation. Biological Conservation 141(10):2632-2640.

  • Husband, R.W, R.L Fischer, and T.W Porter. 1980. Description and Biology of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 13:225-239.

  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2008. World Bee Checklist Project (version 03-Oct-2008). Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Biological Names. Online. Available: http://www.itis.gov.

  • Jean, R. P. 2010. Studies of bee diversity in Indiana: the influence of collection methods on species capture, and a state checklist. Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. 252 pp.

  • Laverty, T.M. and L.D. Harder. 1988. The Bumble Bees of eastern Canada. Can. Ent., 120:965-987.

  • Longcore, T., C. Rich, and L. M. Sullivan. 2009. Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap-neuter-return. Conservation Biology 23(4):887-894.

  • McFrederick, Q. S., and G. LeBuhn. 2006. Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)? Biological Conservation 129(3):372-382 [includes corrigendum].

  • Medler, J.T, and D.W Carney. 1963. Bumblebees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apidae). University of Wisconsin Research Bulletin 240:1-47.

  • Meeus, I., Brown, M.J.F., DeGraaf, D.C., and G. Smagghe. 2011. Effects of invasive parasites on bumble bee declines. Conservation Biology 25(4): 662-671.

  • Mitchell, T.B. 1962. Bees of the eastern United States. II. Technical bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station), 152, 1-557. [Megachilidae, Anthophoridae, Apidae s.s.]

  • Montgomery, B.E. 1956. The anthophilous insects of Indiana. 1. A preliminary annotated list of the Apoidea. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 66:125-140.

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. 

  • Noordijk, J., K. Delille, A.P. Schaffers, and K.V. Sýkora. 2009. Optimizing grassland management for flower-visiting insects in roadside verges. Biological Conservation 142(10):2097-2103.

  • Otterstatter, M.C., and J.D. Thomson. 2008. Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators? PLoS ONE 3(7): e2771.

  • Plath, O.E. 1922b. Notes on the nesting habits of several North American bumblebees. Psyche 29:189-202.

  • Plath, O.E. 1927. Notes on the nesting habits of some of the less common New England bumble-bees. Psyche 34:122-128.

  • Poole, R. W., and P. Gentili (eds.). 1996. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: a checklist of the insects of North America. Volume 2 (Hymenoptera, Mecoptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Raphidioptera, Trichoptera). Entomological Information Services, Rockville, MD.

  • Procter, W. 1938. Biological survey of the Mount Desert region. Part VI, the insect fauna with references to methods of capture, food plants, the flora and other biological features. The Wister Institute of Anatomy and Biology, the Mount Desert region, Corfield, Bar Harbor, Maine. 496 pp.

  • Richardson, L. 2013. Compilation of specimen records for Bombus species of North America from the American Museum of Natural History, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, among several other museums. Unpublished data.

  • Richardson, L.L. 2013. Bumble bees of North America: a database of specimen records for the genus Bombus. Data contributors available: http://www.leifrichardson.org/bbna.html.

  • Russell, K. N, H. Ikard, and S. Droege. 2005. The potential conservation value of unmowed powerline strips for native bees. Biological Conservation 124(1):Pages 133-148.

  • Savard, M. 2009. Aperçu sur la diversité des bourdons de la Minganie, Québec (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Le Naturaliste Canadien 133(2):31-36.

  • Schmidt, J.O., and R.S. Jacobson. 2005. Refugia, biodiversity, and pollination roles of bumble bees in the Madrean Archipelago. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-36. pages 127-130.

  • Schweitzer, D. and N. Sears. May 1, 2013. Bumble bee ranking guidelines. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Schweitzer, D.F., N.A. Capuano, B.E. Young and S.R. Colla. 2012. Conservation and management of North American bumble bees. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, and USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 17 pp.

  • Sheffield, C. S., P. G. Kevan, A. Pindar, and L. Packer. 2013. Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity within apple orchards and old fields in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 145(01):94-114.

  • Sheffield, C. S., P. G. Kevan, and R. F. Smith. 2003. Bee Species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with New Records and Notes on Bionomics and Floral Relations (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76(2):357-384.

  • Super, P.E., and A.T. Moyer. 2003b. Bombus affinis Cresson, Bumble bee - Biodiversity of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In: NPS, DLIA. 2007. Discover Life in America, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Online. Available: http://dlia.org/atbidata/SpeciesPage.php?ftaxon=Apidae&gtaxon=Bombus&staxon=affinis&sstaxon=

  • Tucker, E. M., and S. M. Rehan. 2017. High elevation refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) conservation and wild bees of the White Mountain National Forest. Journal of Insect Science 17(1):1-10.

  • Tuell, J.K., A.K. Fielder, D. Landis, and R. Isaacs. 2008. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs. Environmental Entomology 37(3):707-718.

  • Turnock, W.J., P.G. Kevan, T.M. Laverty, and L. Dumouchel. 2007. Abundance and species of bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Bombinae) in fields of canola, Brassica rapa L., in Manitoba: an 8-year record. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 137:31-40.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1999. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed threatened status for the plant Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly). Federal Register 64(232): 67814-67821.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Draft recovery plan for the prairie species of Western Oregon and Southwestern Washington. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. x + 212 pp. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/080922_1.pdf.

  • Vermont Center for Ecostudies. 2013. Vermont Bumblebee Survey Summary. VES News, the Newsletter of the Vermont Entomological Society, Number 78, Winter 2013, Page 5. Online. Available: www.vermontinsects.org/newsletter.html.

  • Williams, P. H. 2008a. Bombus, bumblebees of the world. Web pages based on Williams, P.H. 1998. An annotated checklist of bumblebees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology) 67:79-152. Online. Available: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/index.html. Accessed 2008-Oct.

  • Williams, P., S. Colla, and Z. Xie. 2009c. Bumblebee vulnerability: common correlates of winners and losers across three continents. Conservation Biology 23(4):931-940.

  • Williams, P.H., R.W. Thorp, L.L. Richardson, and S.R. Colla. 2014b. Bumble bees of North America: an Identification Guide. Princeton University Press. 208 pp.

  • Williams, P.H., and J.L. Osborne. 2009. Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie 40(3):367-387.

  • Wojcik, V.A., G.W. Frankie, R.W. Thorp, and J.L. Hernandez. 2008. Seasonality in Bees and Their Floral Resource Plants at a Constructed Urban Bee Habitat in Berkeley, California. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(1):15-28.

  • Wolf, A.T., and J.S. Ascher. 2008. Bees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). The Great Lakes Entomologist 41(1-2):129-168.

  • Yanega, D. 2013. Compilation of specimen records for Bombus species of North America from the University of California Riverside Entomology Research Museum, the Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California Berkeley, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the California State Collection of Arthropods. Unpublished data.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.