Boltonia montana - J.F. Townsend & V. Karaman-Castro
Mountain Doll's-daisy
Other Common Names: mountain doll's daisy
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.768861
Element Code: PDAST1E090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Boltonia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Townsend, J.F., and V. Karaman-Castro. 2006. A new species of Boltonia (Asteraceae) from the Ridge and Valley physiographic province, U.S.A. Sida 22(2): 873-886.
Concept Reference Code: A06TOW01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Boltonia montana
Taxonomic Comments: Taxon of sinkhole ponds of the Virginia and New Jersey Ridge and Valley. Per J. Towsend of VA Natural Heritage: "This taxon has been known as perhaps an odd Boltonia asteroides for a while, but I have no doubt now that it is quite distinct." Described as a species in 2006.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Sep2010
Global Status Last Changed: 13Dec2006
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: There are 11 occurrences known as of 2010 in New Jersery and Virginia. Boltonia montana is also reported as a historic species in Pennsylvania. It occurs in sinkhole habitats, which are highly threatened by habitat alteration, including physical changes to the karst landscape and water quality changes, non-native plants and its highly restricted range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States New Jersey (S2), Pennsylvania (SH), Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Boltonia montana is known from Virginia, New Jersey and is historic in Pennsylvania.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Boltonia montana occurs in sinkholes in Virginia and New Jersey that are highly, geographically restricted.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of 2010, eleven occurrences were known.

Population Size Comments: The population numbers for this species vary widely given the temporal variability of the sinkholes where it occurs. The population number at a particularly healthy site can range from 10,000 plus one year, and the next year be 100-200; this sort of fluctuation is within the normal range (pers. comm. K. Walz). For purposes of evaluating the conservation rank of this species, the total population number should be given lesser weight than the range extent and area of occupancy.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Element occurrence data in 2010 indicate there are 7 occurrences that are either ranked A or B.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The biggest threat to this species are many of the occurrences are located on private land and are threatened by landfill, drainage, development, heavy agriculture use of the surrounding land, grazing and excavation for cattle ponds (pers. comm. J. Townsend). In other words, given the proportion of occurrences on private land, habitat alteration and loss are a major concern. Other threats to the species include invasive plants, groundwater pollution, and run off. Finally, climate change in the form of changes in precipitation amounts and patterns is also a concern (pers. comm. K. Walz).

It should be noted that any activity that alters the karst landscape where sinkholes occur are threats. In the spring these sinkholes fill with water, and in summer the water table drops. Within and around these ponds, when they are present, one can find completely unique vegetation and animal communities compared to the surrounding landscape. The sinkholes throughout the landscape are usually connected by underground water, and hence, changes in water quality can severly alter a sinkhole where this Boltonia lives.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Element occurrence data suggest that the short term trends for this species are mostly stable given that repeated surveys in New Jersey have reported the same occurrence rank from one survey period to another. Similar observations have been made at the Virginia occurrences (pers. comm. J. Townsend, pers. comm. K. Walz). With this said, there is at least once occurrence that is threatened by a nearby housing development which may be causing some stress on the population.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: The long term decline of this species is estimated between 25-50% given the loss of sinkhole habitat due to settlement and development. While land conversion is an issue, it should be noted that this species requires high levels of sunlight so it might respond favorably to some disturbance.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species only occurs in sinkholes.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Boltonia montana is known from Virginia, New Jersey and is historic in Pennsylvania.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NJ, PA, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NJ Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
VA Augusta (51015)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Sinkhole pond habitats and associated river- and streamsides.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Activities that create barriers within the karst landscape should be avoided. Since sinkhole ponds rely on winter and spring waterflow into a pond, a barrier could prevent this flow and render the sinkhole dry, amongst other negative effects (Walz et al. 2000). Building roads, or other activities that require heavy machinery to be carried across the landscape could cause the underlying bedrock to collapse on itself blocking off waterflow. The underwater streams, caves and cracks must be preserved in order for a sinkhole community to be healthy. Water quality must be excellent or good for a sinkhole community with Boltonia montana to be considered healthy, that is no or very little pollution or nutrient (N +P) impacts and good dissolved oxygen concentrations (Walz et al. 2000). Needless to say, other activities that would create a nutrient load, sedimentation, or physical damage to a sinkhole where B. montana occurs should be halted. Finally, good management practices for this species should focus on maintaining the sinkhole habitat and the surrounding karst landscape.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Sep2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Oliver, L., K. Walz, and J. Townsend
Management Information Edition Date: 20Sep2010
Management Information Edition Author: Oliver, L.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Townsend, J. F. and Vesna Karaman-Castro. 2006. A New Species of Boltonia (Aceraceae) from the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province, U.S.A. SIDA 22(2): 873-886. 2006.

  • Townsend, J.F., and V. Karaman-Castro. 2006. A new species of Boltonia (Asteraceae) from the Ridge and Valley physiographic province, U.S.A. Sida 22(2): 873-886.

  • Walz, K. S., R. J. Canace, J. Boyle, R. Witte, M. S. Serfes, W. Honachefsky, J. Kurtz, and R. Dutko. 2000. Identification and protection of reference wetland natural communities in New Jersey: Calcareous sinkhole ponds of the Kittatinny Valley. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Parks and Forestry, Office of Natural Lands Management, Natural Heritage Program, Trenton, NJ. 260 pp + appendices.

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