Boltonia decurrens - (Torr. & Gray) Wood
Decurrent False Aster
Other English Common Names: Claspingleaf Doll's-daisy
Other Common Names: claspingleaf doll's daisy
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Boltonia decurrens (Torr. & A. Gray) Alph. Wood (TSN 196243)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161342
Element Code: PDAST1E040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Boltonia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Boltonia decurrens
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly classified as Boltonia asteroides var. decurrens or B. latisquama var. decurrens; now recognized as a distinct species (B. decurrens) by Flora of North America (2006) and Kartesz (1994), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Illinois and Missouri Heritage Programs.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 05Dec2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Historically known from almost contiguous populations along a 400 km stretch within the Illinois and Mississippi River floodplain, this species is reduced to about 40 populations of highly variable size. Habitat destruction and modification are believed to be the reasons for the decline. The species is dependent on periodic disturbance from major floods and seasonal fluctuations in water levels; however, the flood regime and seasonal water levels have been altered or stabilized by dams and levees and much former habitat has been modified into agricultural land. An increase in the amount of silt deposited on the floodplains (due to agricultural practices and extensive leveeing) has had a particularly detrimental effect. In spite of its rarity and geographic restriction, in good years large populations of this species may reach 10,000 individual plants. Also, a high level of genetic diversity is apparently present in the species as a whole. However, populations that are surviving on sites disturbed by human activities, rather than by flooding, are precarious - regular cultivation, intensive mowing, and heavy herbicide use could cause declines.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S2), Missouri (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (14Nov1988)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Historical collection records reveal that Boltonia decurrens once occurred in almost contiguous populations along a 400 km stretch between LaSalle, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri within the Illinois and Mississippi River floodplain. A disjunct population, reported in 1976, but not found since, is known from Cape Girardeau, MO, about 195 km down the Mississippi River from St. Louis (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985). The species is currently limited to disjunct populations from Woodford County, Illinois to Madison County, Illinois. In some years, ephemeral populations occur in St. Charles County, Missouri, in the area of confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences varies depending on the water fluctuations but currently 40-43 occurrences are extant. In 1989, following extensive searches by the Illinois and Missouri Departments of Conservation, a total of 18 populations were discovered in Illinois and 10 in Missouri (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990). Following the flood of 1993, the number of populations declined to 10. By the end of the summer of 1994, population number had recovered again. In spite of record flooding on the Illinois River in the spring of 1995, the total number of populations of Boltonia decurrens increased to 34 in 1995. USFWS (2012), a high of 43 populations. Because of the vulnerability of this species to changes in flooding regime, population number is expected to continue to fluctuate in upcoming years.

Population Size Comments: Like the numbers of populations, numbers of individuals of B. decurrens also fluctuate greatly from year to year. Larger stands sometimes have several thousand plants in good years, occasionally exceeding 10,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Boltonia decurrens is threatened primarily by anthropogenic disturbance of natural habitat. Principal threats include flood-control measures; agricultural use of marginal river-bottom land; increased siltation of floodwater, which decreases light availability and prevents germination and seedling establishment; herbicide use for weed control; and marina construction. Because B. decurrens is a successional species that requires high light levels, it is also threatened by alterations in the flooding regime, which may result in succession of habitats to shade-producing species.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Population number and size vary dramatically from year to year depending on the extent and duration of floodwaters. 

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Long-term Trend Comments: The species appears to have declined substantially from its historical abundance.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Habitat destruction and modification are believed to be the main reasons for the decline in the number and size of Boltonia decurrens' populations (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985). Wet prairies and natural marshes have been severely reduced within the species' range and many natural lakes have been drained and converted to cropland (Bellrose, Paveglio and Steffeck, 1979). As a result of the construction of a levee system along the Illinois River, shore habitats have been modified by heavy siltation and altered flooding regimes. Although prolonged flooding by extremely turbid water can damage a population (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990), the species is extraordinarily flood tolerant (Stoecker, Smith and Melton, 1995) and is known to survive several months of complete inundation by relatively clear groundwater (Smith, 1990). The fragility of the species is apparently rooted in its dependence on regular, appropriate site disturbance (regular flooding appears to be the natural regime) to maintain sexually-reproducing populations. When natural succession is uninterrupted for a period of 3-5 years, light levels at the soil surface are apparently not adequate to ensure germination and seedling establishment (Smith, Wu and Green, 1993); however, if site disturbance is too frequent or too destructive (regular cultivation for agricultural purposes, herbicide use for weed control, and maintenance of intensive mowing regimes are examples), populations may be severely reduced or destroyed.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Historical collection records reveal that Boltonia decurrens once occurred in almost contiguous populations along a 400 km stretch between LaSalle, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri within the Illinois and Mississippi River floodplain. A disjunct population, reported in 1976, but not found since, is known from Cape Girardeau, MO, about 195 km down the Mississippi River from St. Louis (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985). The species is currently limited to disjunct populations from Woodford County, Illinois to Madison County, Illinois. In some years, ephemeral populations occur in St. Charles County, Missouri, in the area of confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IL, MO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IL Brown (17009), Bureau (17011), Calhoun (17013)*, Cass (17017), Fulton (17057), Greene (17061)*, Jersey (17083), La Salle (17099), Lake (17097)*, Madison (17119), Marshall (17123), Mason (17125), Menard (17129)*, Morgan (17137), Peoria (17143), Pike (17149), Putnam (17155), Schuyler (17169), Scott (17171), St. Clair (17163), Tazewell (17179), Will (17197), Woodford (17203)
MO Cape Girardeau (29031)*, Dunklin (29069)*, Franklin (29071), Howell (29091), Jefferson (29099)*, Lincoln (29113)*, Pike (29163), Scott (29201)*, St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 The Sny (07110004)+*, Salt (07110007)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+*, Whitewater (07140107)+*
08 Lower St. Francis (08020203)+*, Little River Ditches (08020204)+*
10 Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Spring (11010010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A robust, short-lived perennial herb, up to 2 m tall, that produces numerous flower heads with white or pale violet ray flowers surrounding a yellow central disk. Blooms August-October.
Technical Description: Biennial plant typically growing to a height of 1.5 m, sometimes reaching heights of more than 2 m; characterized by conspicuous decurrent leaves that are linear to lanceolate, ca. 5-15 cm long and 5-20 cm wide; lower leaves generally somewhat larger; inflorescence varies from a compact to a widely spreading panicle; branches are somewhat leafy with numerous aster-like capitula with yellow disks 7-14 mm wide; rays white to pale violet and 1-1.8 cm long; capitula 20-25 mm in diameter appearing on the tall, bushy plants from August to October (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Daisy-like inflorescences composed of perfect yellow disk flowers and white to pale violet pistillate ray flowers; strongly decurrent leaves; lack of rhizomes. Boltonia asteroides var. recognita has decurrent leaves and lacks rhizomes, and also has a strong tendency to have larger flowers, more frequently with violet colored rays (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985).
Duration: ANNUAL, BIENNIAL, Short-lived
Reproduction Comments: Achenes float and are often dispersed by flowing water (Baskin and Baskin 2002).

Vegetative reproduction occurs through shoots formed from a basal rosette (Smith and Keevin 1998).
The species is primarily outcrossing, but some selfing occurs (Smith, 1995). Pistillate ray flowers and perfect disk flowers produce morphologically distinct achenes in inflorescences of approximately 350 flowers in a 1:5 ray to disk ratio. Seed production is prolific with an average of ca. 50,000 seeds produced per plant (Smith & Keevin 1998; Smith, 1990). Germination is ca. 60% under laboratory conditions (Smith, 1990), but seedling survival in the field is <1%. However under optimal conditions, the average plant produces 40,000 seedlings but the rate of seedling survival is low (Smith & Keevin 1998). In late fall, as each flowering individual dies, leaving no persistent root stock, basal rosettes develop independent root systems. The rosettes overwinter, bolt the following spring and flower.

Known Pests: Some grazing of individuals by deer, and, in sites which are flooded, severe damage to overwintering rosettes may result because of small mammal herbivory (Smith, 1993). Very few insects appear to feed on the foliage.
Ecology Comments: Boltonia decurrens blooms from August through October throughout its range (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985). Little variance has been noted in time of anthesis for populations from different locations; however, there is a great deal of variance in the size of plants at anthesis. Plants which have overwintered (either seedlings or vegetatively-produced rosettes) are generally >1.5 m when flowering is initiated, as compared to seedlings which germinate in spring and flower in late summer of the same year (flowering individuals have been noted which were <0.5 m in height). Anthesis does not appear to be related to either photoperiod or temperature at the time of flowering but occurs in response to bolting, which in rosettes, at least, is dependent upon pre-treatment with low temperature. In any given cohort, some seedlings will bolt and flower without cold treatment and some do not flower until they have overwintered. The mechanism for these differing responses is unknown (Smith, 1991).

Both seedlings and vegetatively-produced rosettes can withstand prolonged periods of flooding (Stoecker, Smith and Melton, 1995), and have been observed to develop while completely submerged, to bolt above water level, flower and produce seeds (Smith, 1990). Seeds are conditionally dormant (Baskin and Baskin, 1988), with freshly-produced seeds germinating at warmer temperatures (30C) and those which have after-ripened germinating at a wider range of temperatures (10 - 30C). Peak germination appears to be in spring (Smith, 1991). Seeds stored in a refrigerator at 4C for 6 years are still viable (ca. 50% germination percentage), and a recent study indicates that in the field seeds remain viable in the soil for at least two years (Smith, 1994). In spite of its threatened status and restricted range, preliminary isozyme data developed by Thomas Ranker (University of Colorado, Boulder) from seeds collected from three populations in Illinois in 1994 indicate that there is a high level of genetic diversity (Smith, 1995). This rare species is much more variable, by all the measures examined, than most rare or geographically-restricted plant species, and is even slightly more variable than the average plant species regardless of rarity, distribution, or a variety of other life-history characteristics (Hamrick and Godt, 1990).

Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Colonizes periodically disturbed riverine moist soil habitats (Smith et al. 2005). In general, sites where the species is successful in reproducing sexually and maintaining a self-sustaining population are characterized by moist, sandy soil and regular disturbance, preferably periodic flooding, which maintains open areas with high light levels. Analysis of 19th-century habitat data taken from herbarium sheets indicates that natural habitat was the shores of lakes and the banks of streams, including the Illinois River. In these habitats, regular flooding prevented succession, allowing sunlight to reach the seedlings. Boltonia decurrens is still found in these occasional natural habitats, but it is now primarily restricted to disturbed lowland areas, where it appears to be dependent on human activities (mowing, cultivation) for survival. Germination and seedling establishment do not occur where the soil surface is shaded, such as in places where natural succession has been uninterrupted for a period of 3-5 years. Seed germination is also inhibited by silt deposition.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations annually for status of threats, site condition, and abundance of plants. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Management plans should incorporate recommendations from research (See http://www.siue.edu/~msmith/DrMarianSmith.htm#publications) and refer to the upcoming draft cooperative management agreement between the ILDNR and USFWS (USFWS 2012).
Species Impacts: Boltonia decurrens has virtually no observable impact on other species.
Restoration Potential: After a decade of net decline in the number of individuals of Boltonia decurrens, population sizes rebounded in 1994. Although the number of populations remained at about 20, several populations experienced dramatic increases in size (from fewer than 100 to over 10,000 individuals in one population), and one new population was discovered in Madison County, Illinois. These changes can most likely be attributed to the extensive flooding that occurred along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers which reclaimed, at least temporarily, lost habitat. This is the key to the restoration potential for the species. Boltonia decurrens is threatened because of habitat loss, and successful, long-term restoration can only be achieved by reclaiming and protecting sufficient habitat to restore natural population dynamics. No re-introduction or protection program can be successful for this fugitive species unless enough suitable habitat is available to allow the natural cycle of disturbance-population growth-population decline- disturbance to operate. The Federal buy-out program, aimed at removing marginal agricultural lands and homes from the floodplain, may enhance the likelihood of the recovery of the species. Whether this program is implemented widely enough to restore sufficient wetland habitat is yet to be seen.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Boltonia decurrens apparently has specific site requirements which must be considered in the selection of preserves. The restricted range of the species, primarily to areas of Wisconsinan glacial outwash deposits in the Illinois River and adjacent Mississippi River valleys implies that it has very specific habitat requirements, of which several are known: open, sandy sites adjacent bodies of water which regularly flood. Although populations may become established on higher ground during extreme flood years, it is likely to be unproductive to try to protect populations which occur outside areas where regular flooding is likely to occur.The most suitable State- and Federally-protected areas within the historical range of the species should be candidates for re-establishment and management plans.
Management Requirements: Active management may be necessary for this species. Although a few reintroduction efforts have been attempted, none will be efficacious unless the sites are appropriate (wet, regularly disturbed, suitable soil for seedling establishment, etc.). Management plans should concentrate on preserving suitable habitat in the vicinity of current or recent populations. The species will re-establish and persist if habitat is available and a disturbance regime is maintained. If a natural disturbance regime is absent, it may be possible to mow, disc or flood periodically to ensure the proper site environment.

The Recovery Plan of 1990 outlined an extensive agenda for effecting the recovery of Boltonia decurrens, including the following objectives: 1. To determine the requirements of a naturally reproducing population through research, 2. To locate and protect as many existing populations as practical, 3. To enhance existing populations through management practices where appropriate, and 4. To establish additional populations in suitable protected habitat. The goal was to consider delisting once 12 geographically distinct, stable, self-sustaining natural populations of the species were protected through purchase by fee, easement or by cooperative management agreements. However, five years after the Plan was written, no effective management plans have been formulated, partially because the fugitive nature of the species makes it impossible to "protect" populations. Indeed it is difficult to know when a population is "self-sustaining" because in a natural regime, a disturbance event may destroy one population and establish another in a slightly different location. It is more rational to approach conservation from the point of habitat protection rather than "population" protection.

The objectives mentioned above include the following efforts to protect the species: 1. Secure some level of habitat protection for known, natural, self-sustaining populations on privately-owned lands; 2. Obtain cooperative agreements to develop management plans for the protection and management of natural populations on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuges; 3. Obtain cooperative agreements with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District, to develop management plans for the protection and management of natural and transplanted populations on Corps land in Missouri; 4. Obtain cooperative agreements to develop management plans for the protection and management of natural populations on State land in Illinois; 5. Obtain cooperative agreements to protect natural populations on private property or land owned by local governments; 6. Establish new populations in suitable habitat; 7. Monitor populations; 8. Place seeds in long term seed storage; and 9. Develop and maintain public support for protection of Boltonia decurrens and enhancement of its habitat.


Management Programs: Preliminary management plans have been agreed upon by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Illinois Department of Conservation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to be monitored by Dr. Marian Smith and her students at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, for four Boltonia decurrens' populations: Woodford County Conservation Area (Woodford County, Illinois), Gilbert Lake (Jersey County, Illinois), Horseshoe Lake (Madison County, Illinois), and the Corps' Environmental Demonstration Area at Riverlands, West Alton (St. Charles County, Missouri). Following the Flood of 1993, plans were made to test various management strategies (burning, mowing, and flooding) and transects were established and individual plants were marked in specific treatment areas. Plans were made to compare seedling and rosette survival and growth under different treatments; however, the extensive flooding which occurred in spring and summer, 1995, have put the plans on hold as all four areas were inundated. Work to implement experimental management procedures will continue as the areas become accessible.
Monitoring Programs: The Illinois Department of Conservation began an annual Boltonia decurrens population monitoring program for Illinois in 1984 and a similar program was begun in Missouri by the Missouri Department of Conservation in 1987. Missouri statutes prohibit taking of endangered plants without written permission of the landowner and also prohibits their sale. Since the development of the Recovery Plan in 1990, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Illinois Department of Conservation have funded studies of the species aimed at gaining basic knowledge of its biology and ecology, and have attempted to initiate management plans.
Management Research Programs: Studies of basic biological and ecological characteristics of the species have been funded by Federal and State agencies. These studies were conducted by Dr. Marian Smith, Department of Biology, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois, 62026; (618) 692-3855; FAX (618) 692 3856; msmith@daisy.ac.siue.edu. The following subjects were investigated:requirements for germination, growth, and sexual and asexual reproduction; physiological responses to light levels, flooding, nutrients, and drought stress; site characteristics at historical and current population sites; soil seed bank; and genetic diversity and population dynamics following the Flood of 1993. Details of the findings of the studies can be obtained from any of the following reports and publications, or from Dr. Smith (Schwegman and Nyboer, 1985; Smith, 1990; 1991; 1993; 1994; 1995; Smith & Keevin Smith, Wu & Green, 1993; Stoecker, Smith & Melton, 1995.)
Additional topics: Sources for this Element Stewardship abstract are needed.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: The "A" occurrence should be actively managed for Boltonia decurrens with either natural or man-made periodic disturbance. Stem counts >10,000. These occurrences will be actively management where periodic flooding occurs, where natural succession is prevented in order to reduce competition and shading, and contain high densities of stems, sometimes one million stems.
Good Viability: The "B" occurrences are subject to regular natural or man-made flooding/disturbance, where stem counts are estimated to be fewer than 10,000 but greater than 5,000. These occurrences will be actively managed where periodic flooding occurs, where natural succession is prevented in order to reduce competition and shading, and contain moderate densities of stems sometimes up to 10,000 stems.
Fair Viability: The 'C' occurrences are subject to natural or man-man flooding/disturbance that doesn?t occur at regular intervals such that the persistence of the population is uncertain. These occurrences typically have fewer than 5,000 stems.
Poor Viability: The 'D' occurrences typically show up after one time disturbance events that are not regular, and typically with fewer than 1,000 stems present. An example of a D occurrence would be an area where plants were found after a one-time levee repair or in degraded floodplain forests where light gaps have opened up and a couple of individuals are found. D occurrences also include those that are unmanaged occurring on levees or other flood control structures.
Justification: The Rank Specifications for Boltonia decurrens are based on key biological requirements of the species including: regular, managed, flooding and disturbances such that natural succession is prevented from taking place as the species will not persist where there is competition and seedlings will not germinate if not exposed to light.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 09Mar2015
Author: Oliver, L. Wilker, J., Shuhmann, A. and M. Briggler
Notes: Stem counts should be used loosely to determine EO ranks, and secondarily to flooding frequency and management.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Aug2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Marian Smith, Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, Illinois, rev. Maybury/Schwegman (1996), rev. Treher (2013), rev. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 09Aug1995
Management Information Edition Author: Marian Smith, Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Aug1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MARIAN SMITH, SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIV., EDWARDSVILLE, ILLINOIS.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baskin, C.C., and J.M. Baskin. 1988. Germination ecophysiology of herbaceous plant species in a temperate region. American J. Botany 75: 286-305.

  • Bellrose, F.D., F.L. Paveglio, and D.W. Steffeck. 1979. Waterfowl populations and the changing environment of the Illinois River Valley. Illinois Natural History Survey Bull. 32: 1-51.

  • Hamrick, J.L., and M.J.W. Godt. 1990. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.H.D. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler, and B.S. Weir (eds.). Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources, Sinauer Associates, Incorporated, Sunderland.

  • Herkert, J., ed. 1991c. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and distribution. Volume 1 - Plants. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield. 158 pp.

  • Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 1989. Checklist of endangered and threatened animals and plants of Illinois. 24 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Schwegman, J.E. 1990. Preliminary results of a program to monitor plant species for management purposes. Pp. 113-116, in Ecosystme Management: Rare species and significant habitats. New York State Mus. Bull. 471.

  • Schwegman, J.E. and R.W. Nyboer. 1985. The taxonomic and population status of BOLTONIA DECURRENS (Torr. & Gray) Wood. Castanea 50:112-115.

  • Schwegman, J.E., and R.W. Nyboer. 1985. The taxonomic and population status of Boltonia decurrens (Torrey and Gray) Wood. Castanea 50(2): 112-115.

  • Smith, M. 1990. Basic life history characteristics of Boltonia decurrens (decurrent false aster.) Unpublished report to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. St. Louis, MO. 12 pp.

  • Smith, M. 1991. Life history of the decurrent false aster. Unpublished report to the Illinois Dept. Conservation. Springfield. 12 pp.

  • Smith, M. 1993. Regeneration and maintenance of decurrent false aster populations. Unpublished report to the Illinois Dept. Conservation. Springfield. 23 pp.

  • Smith, M. 1994. Effects of the flood of 1993 on the decurrent false aster (Boltonia decurrens). Unpublished report to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. St. Louis, MO. 10 pp.

  • Smith, M. 1995. Effects of the flood of 1993 on population status of the decurrent false aster. Preliminary report to the National Science Foundation and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 9 pp.

  • Smith, M., H. Caswell, and P. Mettler-Cherry 2005. Stochastic flood and precipitation regimes and the population dynamics of a threatened floodplain plant. Ecological Applications 15:1036-1052.

  • Smith, M., Y. Wu, and O. Green. 1993. Effect of light and water stress on photosynthesis and biomass production in Boltonia decurrens (Asteraceae), a threatened species. American J. Botany 80(8): 859-864.

  • Stoecker, M.A., M. Smith and E.D. Melton. 1995. Survival and aerenchyma development under flooded conditions of Boltonia decurrens, a threatened floodplain species, and Conyza canadensis, a widely distributed competitor. American Midland Naturalist 134: 117-126.

  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Decurrent False Aster Recovery Plan. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, MN. 26 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife (USFWS). 2012. Decurrent False Aster (Boltonia decurrens) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midwest Region, Rock Island Ecological Services Field Office, Moline, Illinois.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1976. Endangered Species Technical Bull. July 1976.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Proposal to determine Boltonia decurrens (decurrent false aster) to be a threatened species. Federal Register 53(37): 5598-5602.

  • Wilson, J.H., ed. 1984. Rare and endangered species of Missouri. Missouri Dept. Conservation. 171 pp.

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