Batrachoseps diabolicus - Jockusch, Wake, and Yanev, 1998
Hell Hollow Slender Salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Batrachoseps diabolicus Jockusch, Wake and Yanev, 1998 (TSN 573575)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106376
Element Code: AAAAD02130
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae Batrachoseps
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Jockusch, E. L., D. B. Wake, and K. P. Yanev. 1998. New species of slender salamanders, Batrachoseps (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from the Sierra Nevada of California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 472:1-17.
Concept Reference Code: A98JOC01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Batrachoseps diabolicus
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in B. relictus (see Jockusch et al. 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Jul2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Jul2015
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Small range on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California; better information is needed on abundance, trends, and threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (03Mar1999)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: DD - Data deficient

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 1000-5000 square km (about 400-2000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Merced River drainage to the American River drainage, at elevations below 300 m, west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California (Jockusch et al. 1998). Stebbins (2003) mentioned an occurence at about 500 m, apparently in Mariposa County.

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of occurrences is unknown. Jockusch et al. (1998) mapped nine locations from which genetic samples were obtained; at least eight of these likely represent distinct occurrences.

Population Size: 2500 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely is at least a few thousand.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (1000-5000 square km (about 400-2000 square miles)) Merced River drainage to the American River drainage, at elevations below 300 m, west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California (Jockusch et al. 1998). Stebbins (2003) mentioned an occurence at about 500 m, apparently in Mariposa County.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004

Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Generally in open, brushy areas on the margins of often dense chaparral; scattered Pinus sabiniana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus, and Aesculus may be present (Jockusch et al. 1998).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Plethodontid Salamanders

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway, especially with high traffic volume at night; major river or lake; other totally inappropriate habitat that the salamanders cannot traverse.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: These salamanders rarely successfully cross roadways that have heavy traffic volume at night, when most movements occur. Rivers and lakes pose formidable impediments to movement and generally function as barriers, with the effect increasing with river and lake size. Treatment of these as barriers or unsuitable habitat is a subjective determination.

Compared to larger ambystomatid salamanders, the movements of plethodontids are poorly documented, but it is clear that home ranges tend to be very small (e.g., Marvin 2001), on the order of a few meters to a few dozen meters in diameter. For example, Welsh and Lind (1992) found that over six months, 66% of Plethodon elongatus males and 80% of females recaptured were in the same 7.5 x 7.5 m grid, and the maximum distance moved was 36.2 m. D. Clayton (pers. comm 1998) estimated that average home ranges may be as small as one square meter. Yet, on occasion, dispersing plethodontids likely travel at least several hundred meters. The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the limited movements of these salamanders, tempered by their tendency to occur throughout patches of suitable habitat and the likely low probability that two locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Aug2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 11Feb1999
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Jockusch, E. L., D. B. Wake, and K. P. Yanev. 1998. New species of slender salamanders, Batrachoseps (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from the Sierra Nevada of California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 472:1-17.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

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