Batrachoseps campi - Marlow, Brode, and Wake, 1979
Inyo Mountains Salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Batrachoseps campi Marlow, Brode and Wake, 1979 (TSN 173707)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100550
Element Code: AAAAD02030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae Batrachoseps
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Batrachoseps campi
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01May2013
Global Status Last Changed: 01May2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known from fewer than 20 isolated localities in the Inyo Mountains, California; fragile habitat; abundance and trend poorly known..
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (01May2013)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: EN - Endangered

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-1000 square km (about 100-400 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is known only from isolated localities on the west and east slopes of the Inyo Mountains, Inyo County, California (Marlow et al. 1979, Yanev and Wake 1981, Jennings and Hayes 1994, Jockusch 2001). Elevational range is 490-2,590 meters (Hansen and Wake 2005).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Known occupied habitat is encompassed by not more than 20 grid cells (2 km x 2 km).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from at least 16 localities in the Inyo Mountains (Jennings and Hayes 1994). Captures in pitfall traps in areas without surface moisture suggest that the species may be more broadly distributed below the surface (Jockusch 2001).

Population Size: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown, but each of the known populations encompasses a very small area and hence a probably small population. According to Hansen and Wake (2005), based on genetic data, "the collective effective population size of the populations sampled by Yanev and Wake (1981) was estimated at 14,000." Given that additional populations subsequently have been found, the effective population size would be larger than 14,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include habitat alteration from flash floods, mining, water diversion, and vegetation damage by cattle and feral burros (Papenfuss and Macey 1986; Giuliani 1990, 1996; Jennings and Hayes 1994). Water diversion for mining or other activities has caused declines or extirpations (Papenfuss and Macey 1986). Concerted efforts have been made by federal agencies to reduce the number of feral burros in the Inyo Mountains region (Hansen and Wake 2005). Climate change (e.g., drought, increased flash flooding) presumably may detrimentally affect this species to some degree over coming decades.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably have been relatively stable or slowly declining. Some populations apparently were declining in recent years due to spring alterations related to mining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain but distribution and abundance probably have declined somewhat.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Suitable habitat in the region should be searched for additional occurrences.

Protection Needs: Habitats of multiple populations need to be protected to maintain diversity (each population is genetically isolated and unique). Publicity of localities should be avoided..

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-1000 square km (about 100-400 square miles)) This species is known only from isolated localities on the west and east slopes of the Inyo Mountains, Inyo County, California (Marlow et al. 1979, Yanev and Wake 1981, Jennings and Hayes 1994, Jockusch 2001). Elevational range is 490-2,590 meters (Hansen and Wake 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Inyo (06027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Owens Lake (18090103)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small, slender, lungless salamander.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: These salamanders occur localized in mesic microhabitats along small permanent desert springs and seeps with riparian vegetation; generally under stones, wood, or in holes or crevices in moist soil near spring seepages and pools; vegetation along water courses consists of willows and wild rose; surrounding slopes are arid, grown to sagebrush, buckwheat, rabbitbrush, and cactus (Marlow et al. 1979, Yanev and Wake 1981, Stebbins 2003). A few captures in pitfall traps in areas without surface moisture indicate that the species may be more widely distributed below the surface (Jockusch 2001). Terrestrial breeder.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Members of this genus feed on a wide variety of small invertebrates including insects, spiders, snails and sowbugs (Stebbins 1972).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures. Activity period is poorly understood.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Primary management need is protection of springs and associated mesic habitats from alteration by human activities and by grazing livestock and feral burros. Multiple localities should be protected because populations exhibit a relatively high degree of genetic uniqueness. Better information is needed on current population size and trend. Further surveys are needed to determine the degree to which the species occurs away from sources of surface moisture.
Biological Research Needs: Further information on population size and trend is needed.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Plethodontid Salamanders

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway, especially with high traffic volume at night; major river or lake; other totally inappropriate habitat that the salamanders cannot traverse.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: These salamanders rarely successfully cross roadways that have heavy traffic volume at night, when most movements occur. Rivers and lakes pose formidable impediments to movement and generally function as barriers, with the effect increasing with river and lake size. Treatment of these as barriers or unsuitable habitat is a subjective determination.

Compared to larger ambystomatid salamanders, the movements of plethodontids are poorly documented, but it is clear that home ranges tend to be very small (e.g., Marvin 2001), on the order of a few meters to a few dozen meters in diameter. For example, Welsh and Lind (1992) found that over six months, 66% of Plethodon elongatus males and 80% of females recaptured were in the same 7.5 x 7.5 m grid, and the maximum distance moved was 36.2 m. D. Clayton (pers. comm 1998) estimated that average home ranges may be as small as one square meter. Yet, on occasion, dispersing plethodontids likely travel at least several hundred meters. The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the limited movements of these salamanders, tempered by their tendency to occur throughout patches of suitable habitat and the likely low probability that two locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01May2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01May2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2005. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Giuliani, D. 1990. New salamander populations from the eastern Sierra Nevada and Owens Valley region of California with notes on previously known sites. California Department of Fish and Game, Contracts FG7533 and FG8450, Sacramento, California.

  • Giuliani, D. 1996. Resurvey of eastern Sierra Nevada salamanders. California Department of Fish and Game, Unpublished report, Sacramento, California.

  • Hansen, R. W., and D. B. Wake. 2005. Batrachoseps campi Marlow, Brode, and Wake, 1979. Pages 669-671 in M. Lannoo, editor. Amphibian declines. The status of United States species. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Jennings, M. R., and M. P. Hayes. 1994. Amphibian and reptile species of special concern in California. Final Report submitted to the California Department of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division. Contract No. 8023. 255 pp.

  • Jockusch, E.L. 2001. Batrachoseps campi. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 722:1-2.

  • Marlow, R. W., J. M. Brode, and D. B. Wake. 1979. A new salamander, genus Batrachoseps, from the Inyo Mountains of California, with a discussion of relationships in the genus. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 308:1-17.

  • Papenfuss, T. J., and J. R. Macey. 1986. A review of the population status of the Inyo Mountains salamander. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Order Number 10188-5671-5, Endangered Species Office, Sacramento, California.

  • Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1972. California Amphibians and Reptiles. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Yanev, K. P., and D. B. Wake. 1981. Genic differentiation in a relict desert salamander, Batrachoseps campi. Herpetologica 37:16-28.

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