Basiphyllaea corallicola - (Small) Ames
Carter's Orchid
Other Common Names: Carter's orchid
Synonym(s): Basiphyllaea angustifolia Schlechter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Basiphyllaea corallicola (Small) Ames (TSN 43493)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.902322
Element Code: PMORC06030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Basiphyllaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02FNA26HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Basiphyllaea corallicola
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Jun2014
Global Status Last Changed: 05Jun2014
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Occurs in Cuba, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and Florida. In Florida, this species had not been seen for over 50 years following a collection made in 1903 near Miami. However, since 1992, it has been found at several locations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in Florida, Cuba, the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic (Ackerman 1995; Ackerman 2014; Correll & Correll 1982; NatureServe Central Database 2014; Nir 2000; Llamacho & Larramendi 2005).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Five element occurences in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, Florida. A couple occurences are not found every year but it is expected that they are still there since the plants can remain dormant for years.
Also found in Bahamas (Correll & Correll 1982), Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola (Ackerman 1995). Historically, this species was searched for unsuccessfully in Cuba (Hawkes 1949).

Noted as being locally common in the Maricao Forest Reserve of Puerto Rico (Ackerman 1995).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats in Florida include urbanization, fire suppression, and exotic pest plant invasions, especially by Burmareed (Neyraudia reynaudiana) and Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius (Gann et al. 2002, Gann and Woodmansee 2014, NatureServe 2014).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in Florida, Cuba, the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic (Ackerman 1995; Ackerman 2014; Correll & Correll 1982; NatureServe Central Database 2014; Nir 2000; Llamacho & Larramendi 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Miami-Dade (12086), Monroe (12087)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Everglades (03090202)+, Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with a single, fleshy leaf and a slender, erect flower stalk, 2-3.8 dm tall. Each plant may remain dormant for many years without blooming, so that only a few members of a colony flower each season (September-December). Flowers are small, yellow-green (sometimes pink-tinged).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Species can lie dormant for many years.

Fungal associates are not identified for this species.

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: In Florida, plants occur in shallow, sand-filled pockets of coral rock (a porous limestone) in dry pinelands, Pine rocklands, and rockland hammock ecotones; often growing among grasses and in leaf litter (Gann and Woodmansee 2014).

In Puerto Rico, occurs at low elevations (100-750 m) in thick forest litter of limestone hills and serpentine scrub forests (Ackerman, 1995).

Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Cultivated ornamental
Economic Comments: This species is not documented in the horticulture trade but it might be wild collected, illegally, for the niche or specialty market or private collections.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08May2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hilsenbeck, C. E., and A. F. Johnson (1995); Y. Ogle (1987) rev. L. Morse (1995), rev. A. Treher (2014)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerman, J.D. 1995. An orchid flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden Vol. 73. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 203 pp.

  • Ackerman, J.D. 2014. Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, vol. 109. The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 625 pp.

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Correll, D.S., and H.B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (including the Turks and Caicos Islands). J. Cramer, Vaduz. 1692 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Gann, G.D., K.A. Bradley, S.W. Woodmansee. 2002. Rare Plants of South Florida: Their History, Conservation, and Restoration. The Institute for Regional Conservation, Miami, FL. 1056 pgs.

  • Gann, G.D., and S.W. Woodmansee. 2006-2014. Species Account Update, Floristic Inventory of South Florida Database Online. The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida. Available online: http://regionalconservation.org/.

  • Hammer, R.L. 1992. The strange case of Carter's orchid. Fairchild Tropical Garden Bull. April 1992. p. 32-39.

  • Hawkes, Alex D. 1949. Studies in South Florida botany. 7. A note on Basiphyllaea corallicola (small) Ames. Phytologia 3:153-4.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Llamacho, J.A., and J.A. Larramendi. 2005. The orchids of Cuba. Greta Editores, Lleida, Espaņa. 287 p.

  • Long, R.W. and O. Lakela. 1976. A flora of tropical Florida. Banyan Books. Miami, Florida, xvii + 962 pp.

  • Luer, C. A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 293 pp.

  • Nir, M.A. 2000. Orchidaceae Antillanae. DAG Media Pub., New York. 453 p.

  • Pemberton, R.W. 2008. Pollination of The Ornamental Orchid Oncidium sphacelatum By the Naturalized Oil-Collecting Bee (Centris nitida) in Florida. Selbyana 29(1):87-91.

  • Van der Cingel, N.A. 2001. An Atlas of Orchid Pollination: European Orchids. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 260 pp.

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