Barbicambarus cornutus - (Faxon, 1884)
Bottle Brush Crayfish
Synonym(s): Cambarus cornutus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Barbicambarus cornutus (Faxon, 1884) (TSN 97633)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.120537
Element Code: ICMAL49010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Crustaceans - Crayfishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Crustacea Malacostraca Decapoda Cambaridae Barbicambarus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.
Concept Reference Code: B89HOB01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Barbicambarus cornutus
Taxonomic Comments: In some literature called Cambarus cornutus (Hobbs, 1989).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Jul2009
Global Status Last Changed: 29Jan2008
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: The species is fairly narrowly distributed and uncommon due to specific habitat requirements of large rocks. There is no evidence that it exists in the three large resevoirs which have been built in its range. These resevoirs have reduced available habitat to the species, however this occurred in the early 1970s when the dams were first built. The impact on the species has been to fragment the range, restricting gene flow between the three sub populations. While this is could to impact long term persistence, it is not likely to be causing declines over the short term. Invasion by aggressive non-native species from the Orconectes genus via bait release, is not likely to impact this species, most probably due to its habitat differences and larger size.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (29Jan2008)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (S2), Tennessee (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Aug2007)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: It is endemic to the upper Green River basin in Kentucky and Tennessee (Hobbs, 1989).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Kentucky, it is found most commonly in the Barren River drainage, the mainstem of the middle section of the Green River, and in the Nolin River above Nolin Lake (Taylor and Schuster, 2004).

Population Size Comments: This species is uncommon. It is best described as sporadic, as the habitat which it prefers (large flat rocks), is not a common habitat.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The main threats to this species is fragmentation of the range preventing gene flow. It is possible that populations in the Green and Nolin Rivers have become isolated due to reservoir construction. These were built in the late 1960s - early 1970s. It is unlikely that invasive species introduced to these lake systems by bait release from fishing will impact this species due to their large size, and different habitat preferences.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) It is endemic to the upper Green River basin in Kentucky and Tennessee (Hobbs, 1989).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Adair (21001), Allen (21003), Barren (21009), Boyle (21021)*, Casey (21045)*, Edmonson (21061)*, Grayson (21085), Green (21087), Hart (21099), Lincoln (21137)*, Marion (21155)*, Metcalfe (21169), Monroe (21171)*, Pulaski (21199)*, Russell (21207)*, Simpson (21213), Taylor (21217), Warren (21227)
TN Clay (47027), Macon (47111), Sumner (47165)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Kentucky (05100205)+*, Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+*, Rolling Fork (05140103)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a crayfish
General Description: A large, colorful (basically bright green with cream and crimson highlights) crawfish. [LENGTH: to 100 TCL; to 200 TL] [WIDTH: to 35]
Diagnostic Characteristics: Fringed antennae unique; first pleopod of male terminating in 2 elements, both bent at greater than 90 degrees to main axis of appendage (Hobbs, 1989).
Reproduction Comments: No life history or fecundity study in literature; based on typical pattern of geographic area, probably amplexus in fall, oviposition in early spring, young release in late spring/early summer. Matures probaly by late fall, with 2-3 breeding seasons/female.
Ecology Comments: No empirical data on home range, but usually only 1 or 2 large adults found under stone of 4-5 m diameter.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Strong swimmer, walker, but rarely seen moving about, at least during daylight hours.
Riverine Habitat(s): MEDIUM RIVER, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Frequently found under very large rocks in stream bed; typically under largest rocks of streams; juveniles less demanding of large rocks. It is a tertiary burrower found in streams or riffles (Burr et al., 2004). This species is also commonly found under large boulders and in association with limestone or rubble, and along creek margins where there is current (Hobbs, 1974; Rhoades, 1944; Taylor and Schuster, 2004). It is occasionally found in shallow riffles if there are large boulder present.
Adult Food Habits: Detritivore, Piscivore, Scavenger
Immature Food Habits: Detritivore
Food Comments: Probably, as most crawfishes, feeds on available foods opportunistically; can hunt small fishes and other aquatic animals efficiently if available; diet principally detritis; but no firm empirical data available.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: No empirical data, but adults rarely observed in open water during daylight hours; therefore, most feeding, etc. probably at night.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: No known human or economic use.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Crayfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are based on hydrological discontinuity. Additional physical barriers, particularly for secondary and tertiary burrowers, include presence of upland habitat between water connections of a distance greater than 30 m. Migration of primary burrowers is generally not hindered by presence of upland habitat unless conditions are very xeric (dry and desert-like) (Smith, 2001).
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave (troglobitic) species may occur from near entrances to very deep in cave systems. For cave species, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance unless caves are part of a single hydrological system (see below). Occurrences are additionally separated by underground physical barriers to movement. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered to be a single element occurrence when they are less than one km apart. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are considered separate element occurrences when hydrological connections have not been determined or when separated by a distance of at least one km.
Separation Justification: Habitat for these creatures is primarily separated according to each species' burrowing ability. All crayfish are able to burrow to some extent and this ability will help determine the range of habitats in which a species can be found. Burrowing in the Astacidae is limited to streambed and bank excavation (Hobbs, 1988). The Cambaridae, as a whole are much more adept at burrowing than the Astacidae. As a result, they possess a greater habitat range than the Astacidae including dry water bodies (Hogger, 1988).

The burrowers can be classified into three categories: primary burrowers, secondary burrowers, and tertiary burrowers. Primary burrowers tend to remain in their burrows continuously and live in areas without permanent water except during breeding when they must migrate to a nearby water source (Hogger, 1988). The prairies of eastern and central Mississippi and western Alabama are an example of primary burrower habitat (Hogger, 1988). Secondary burrowers remain in burrows during dry periods but emerge when habitats are inundated seasonally. Such habitat includes lentic systems flooded periodically but dry in summer (Huner and Romaire, 1979) and permanent and temporary ponds and swamps in the southern United States. Tertiary burrowers do not burrow except during infrequent drought conditions and/or during breeding season. Both flowing and standing water can be tertiary burrower habitat.

Because primary burrowers, and to a lesser extent secondary burrowers, can occupy xeric habitats, separation barriers for such species do not include presence of upland habitat except in extremely dry conditions. Survival during dry periods, particularly for secondary burrowers, is dependent upon construction of a burrow regardless of season. Several different types have been described (Smith, 2001) depending on species, soil, and depth of water table.

Published information about movement in relation to migration distance is lacking but Cooper (1998, personal communication) and Fitzpatrick (1998, personal communication) both recommend a separation distance of one km between element occurrences. Dispersal patterns are best known for invasive species which likely have the greatest dispersal capability, therefore, separation distances have been determined for all crayfish based on these studies. Guan and Wiles (1997) provided evidence from the River Great Ouse in the United Kingdom that the range of movement for the majority of the invasive Pacifastacus leniusculus was within 190 m. Bubb et al. (2004) also studied P. leniusculus in England using radio-tagging and found median maximal upstream and downstream movement distances were 13.5 m (range 0-283 m) and 15 m (range 0-417 m), respectively. Barbaresi et al. (2004) found that ranging speed in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) to be slow (0.3 to 76.5 m/day) with the widest ranging individual traveling 304 m. Lewis and Horton (1996) found that 21% of tagged Pacifastacus leniusculus in an Oregon harvest pond moved >1000 m in one year while the majority moved <500 m. As such minimum separation distance (unsuitable and suitable) has been set at the NatureServe standard minimum of two km.

Exposed pools and streams in caves represent "karst windows" into more extensive underground streams. No information on the distance cave crayfish can disperse in underground streams is yet available.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Primary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) carolinus, C. (C.) diogenes diogenes, C. (Depressicambarus) catagius, C. (D.) cymatilis, C. (D.) deweesae, C. (D.) harti, C. (D.) reflexus, C. (D.) pyronotus, C. (D.) striatus, C. (D.) strigosus, C. (D.) truncatus, C. (Glareocola), C. (Jugicambarus) batchi, C. (J.) carolinus, C. (J.) causeyi, C. (J.) dubius, C. (J.) gentryi, C. (J.) monongalensis, C. (J.) nodosus, C. (Lacunicambarus), C. (Tubericambarus), Distocambarus, Fallicambarus, Procambarus (Acucauda), P. (Distocambarus), P. (Girardiella) barbiger, P. (G.) cometes, P. (G.) connus, P. (G.) curdi, P. (G.) gracilis, P. (G.) hagenianus hagenianus, P. (G.) hagenianus vesticeps, P. (G.) liberorum, P. (G.) pogum, P. (Hagenides) [except P. pygmaeus]
Secondary burrowers include the following taxa: Cambarus (Cambarus) ortmanni, C. (Depressicambarus) latimanus, C. (D.) reduncus, Hobbseus, Procambarus (Cambarus) clarkii, P. (Girardiella) kensleyi, P. (G.) reimeri, P. (G.) simulans, P. (G.) steigmani, P. (G.) tulanei, P. (Hagenides) pygmaeus, P. (Leconticambarus) [excepting P. alleni and P. milleri], P. (Ortmannicus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], P. (Tenuicambarus)
Tertiary burrowers include the following taxa: Barbicambarus, Bouchardina, Cambarus (Cambarus) angularis, C. (C.) bartonii carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) howardi, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Depressicambarus) englishi, C. (D.) graysoni, C. (D.) halli, C. (D.) obstipus, C. (D.) sphenoides, C. (Erebicambarus) ornatus, C. (E.) rusticiformis, C. (Exilicambarus) cracens, C. (Hiaticambarus), C. (Jugicambarus) asperimanus, C. (J.) bouchardi, C. (J.) crinipes, C. (J.) distans, C. (J.) friaufi, C. (J.) obeyensis, C. (J.) parvoculus, C. (J.) unestami, C. (Puncticambarus) [excepting the cave dwelling species], C. (Veticambarus), Cambarellus, Faxonella, Orconectes [excepting the cave dwelling species], Pacifastacus, Procambarus (Capillicambarus), P. (Girardiella) ceruleus, P.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jul2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2008); Taylor, C. (1996)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Jun2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J. (2009); FITZPATRICK, J.F. (1991)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bouchard, R.W. 1972. A new genus of crayfish from Kentucky and Tennessee (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidae). The ASB Bulletin 19(2):56.

  • Burr, B.M., J.T. Spiorski, M.R. Thomas, K.S. Cummings, and C.A. Taylor. 2004. Fishes, mussels, crayfish, and aquatic habitats of the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Pages 109-171 in General Technical Report NC-244, St. Paul, Minnesota: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 267 pp.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1974. A checklist of the North American and middle American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae and Cambari dae). Smithsonian Contrib. to Zool. 166:1-161.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.

  • Jass, J.P. 2008. The slighter creeper. Ellipsaria, 10(2): 6.

  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

  • Rhoades, R. 1944. The crayfishes of Kentucky, with notes on variation, distribution and descriptions of new species and subspecies. The American Midland Naturalist 31(1):111-149.

  • Taylor, C.A. and G.A. Schuster. 2004. The Crayfishes of Kentucky. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication, 28: viii + 210 pp.

  • Taylor, C.A., G.A. Schuster, J.E. Cooper, R.J. DiStefano, A.G. Eversole, P. Hamr, H.H. Hobbs III, H.W. Robison, C.E. Skelton, and R.F. Thoma. 2007. A reassessment of the conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada after 10+ years of increased awareness. Fisheries 32(8):371-389.

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