Baptisia megacarpa - Chapman ex Torr. & Gray
Apalachicola Wild Indigo
Other Common Names: Apalachicola wild indigo
Synonym(s): Baptisia riparia Larisey
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Baptisia megacarpa Chapman ex Torr. & Gray (TSN 26478)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133591
Element Code: PDFAB0G0F0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Baptisia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Baptisia megacarpa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Apr1997
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Occurs in Southwest Georgia, southeast Alabama, and adjacent Florida Panhandle. Found in mixed-hardwood and hardwood-pine forests, usually near a floodplain or ravine. About 20 extant sites. Known occurrences have several potential threats, from site specific logging, collecting or inundation caused by water management to more ecosystem-wide threats such as invasive, non-native species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Florida (S1), Georgia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in Southwest Georgia, southeast Alabama, and adjacent Florida Panhandle. Known from 3 three counties in Florida (Gadsden, Holmes, and Liberty); 10 counties in Alabama (Bibb, Bullock, Crenshaw, Geneva, Henry, Lee, Macon, Montgomery, Pike, and Tallapoosa); and an unknown number in GA (Three confirmed counties: Clay, Decatur, and Muscogee) the heritage botanist suggest 2 others as possible: Taylor and Crawford. The AL and FL occurrences form 4 clusters separated by 50-80 miles: the Bibb Co populations in the NW, the main cluster NE and SE of Montgomery, AL; a southwest cluster in the Choctawhatchee River drainage in Holmes Co, FL and Geneva Co, AL and a southeastern cluster in the Apalachicola River drainage in Decatur Co., GA and Gadsden and Liberty Cos, FL.

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Historically known from 11 occurrences in Florida (one of which is possibly a herbarium label error); 14 occurrences in Alabama (including an R.K. Godfrey 1959 Geneva County collection and a 1980 vegetative specimen by Godfrey from Clarke Co, AL which are not included in the Alabama Heritage database) and (tentatively) 11 occurrences in Georgia, according to Georgia Heritage botanist, Tom Patrick (pers. comm. 2013). Currently extant occurrences total 12: 7 in AL, 4 in FL and at least 1 in GA (personal observation 2013). There have also been two new Georgia discoveries in Taylor and Crawford counties which have not been field checked by the heritage Botanist. If accurate, these would extend the species range from southwestern into middle Georgia.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: One A-ranked occurrence is found in Torreya State Park, FL. One B-ranked occurrence is found on private land in Alabama but is not included since it is vulnerable to timber harvest and highway maintenance.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation/alteration (stream impoundment), and forest management practices (logging on slopes above creeks and streams) (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Occurs in habitats susceptible to invasion by non-native species such as Lonicera japonica. May also be threatened by collecting for or by specialists.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Habitat destruction has accelerated within the past 5 to 10 years (pers. comm. Al Schotz).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Its lower slope habitat is readily converted to pine plantation outside of protected areas; it may also have been affected by rising water tables associated with damming of the rivers in its drainage area.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in Southwest Georgia, southeast Alabama, and adjacent Florida Panhandle. Known from 3 three counties in Florida (Gadsden, Holmes, and Liberty); 10 counties in Alabama (Bibb, Bullock, Crenshaw, Geneva, Henry, Lee, Macon, Montgomery, Pike, and Tallapoosa); and an unknown number in GA (Three confirmed counties: Clay, Decatur, and Muscogee) the heritage botanist suggest 2 others as possible: Taylor and Crawford. The AL and FL occurrences form 4 clusters separated by 50-80 miles: the Bibb Co populations in the NW, the main cluster NE and SE of Montgomery, AL; a southwest cluster in the Choctawhatchee River drainage in Holmes Co, FL and Geneva Co, AL and a southeastern cluster in the Apalachicola River drainage in Decatur Co., GA and Gadsden and Liberty Cos, FL.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bibb (01007), Bullock (01011)*, Crenshaw (01041), Henry (01067), Lee (01081), Macon (01087)*, Montgomery (01101)*, Pike (01109), Tallapoosa (01123)
FL Calhoun (12013), Gadsden (12039), Holmes (12059)*, Liberty (12077)
GA Clay (13061), Crawford (13079), Decatur (13087), Harris (13145), Muscogee (13215), Talbot (13263)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Upper Flint (03130005)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Pea (03140202)+*, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+*, Upper Conecuh (03140301)+, Patsaliga (03140302)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+, Upper Alabama (03150201)+*, Lower Black Warrior (03160113)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial, solitary or multi-stemmed herb to 4 ft. Creamy, pale yellow to white pea-like flowers. Flowers and fruits in spring and early summer (April to June).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Baptisia that have cream petals; short racemes; smoothish, trifoliate leaves; thin-walled and inflated legumes and are found in riparian systems are most likely Baptisia megacarpa.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers and fruits in spring and early summer.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Slope forest, up-slope from streams and floodplain woodlands; usually found associated with an opening in the canopy.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Baptisia megacarpa will have more than 30 individuals in a functional, high quality forest. The presence of invasive species, logging, and structures should cover less than 10 % of the population area.
Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Baptisia megacarpa will have 15 to 29 individuals in a functional, high quality forest. The presence of invasive species, timber harvesting, and structures should be unobtrusive covering less than 10 % of the population area. Larger occurrences more heavily impacted (to 40 %) by the above-mentioned disturbances will also qualify as a B-ranked occurrence. Easily restored to A-ranked specs.
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Baptisia megacarpa will have 5 to 14 individuals in a functional, high quality forest. The presence of invasive species, timber harvesting, and structures should be unobtrusive covering less than 10 % of the population area. Larger occurrences more heavily impacted (to 80 %) by the above-mentioned disturbances will also qualify as a C-ranked occurrence. Restorable to A- and B-ranked conditions.
Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Baptisia megacarpa can have less than five individuals in a functional, high quality forest. Larger occurrences severely impacted by invasive species, timber harvesting, and/or development with limited or no chance for recovery will also qualify as a D-ranked occurrence.
Justification: Specifications for Baptisia megacarpa are based on Element Occurrence Records, personal observations, and expert opinion. Currently, no known qualitative or comparative studies have been conducted. As additional information becomes available, a revision of specifications should be addressed accordingly.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 04Jan2004
Author: Schotz, Alfred
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Sep2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: White, D.L. (1991) rev. M. Fellows (2004) rev. A.F. Johnson (2013), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. No date. Baptisia megacarpa Chapm. ex Torr. Streamside wild indigo. Paper 229.

  • Patrick, Tom. Georgia Heritage Botanist. Email of 24 September 2013 regarding occurrences of Baptisia megacarpa in Georgia Heritage Program database.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

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