Balduina atropurpurea - Harper
Purple Balduina
Other English Common Names: Purple-disk Honeycomb-head
Other Common Names: purpledisk honeycombhead
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Balduina atropurpurea Harper (TSN 36804)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.132712
Element Code: PDAST0Z020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Balduina
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Balduina atropurpurea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Jun2008
Global Status Last Changed: 09Oct2002
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: A southeastern Coastal Plain endemic with widely separated occurrences. Not recently seen in the Carolinas or Alabama. Much of its naturally rare wet savannah and bog habitat has been altered or destroyed by fire suppression and by drainage and conversion to agriculture and pine plantations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SH), Florida (S1), Georgia (S2S3), North Carolina (S1), South Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in southeastern and southcentral Georgia and northeast Florida. Possibly extirpated in the Florida panhandle and adjacent Alabama (Patrick et al. 1995). Disjunct in southeast North Carolina and northcentral South Carolina but not recently seen there (Weakley 2007).

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Georgia, approximately 45 populations are known (Chafin 2007). In Florida, approximately 7 populations are known (Chafin 2000).

Population Size Comments: In 1996, the population at Fort Stewart, Georgia was estimated to be between 10,477 and 44,299 genets (Lincicome 1998). Fort Stewart is thought to contain the greatest number individuals of this species (Lincicome 1998).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by encroachment of woody vegetation, and alterations to hydrology such as wetland drainage and improper firebreak construction (Patrick et al. 1995). Military vehicle traffic may be a threat at some sites (Lincicome 1998).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Short-term Trend Comments: At Fort Stewart, Georgia, one of the populations found in 1995 was not found again in 1996 (Lincicome 1998).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-90%
Long-term Trend Comments: Known from historical occurrences only in Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina (Patrick et al. 1995; Weakley 2007). Much of its habitat has been lost due to fire suppression and conversion to agricultural land (Patrick et al. 1995).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in southeastern and southcentral Georgia and northeast Florida. Possibly extirpated in the Florida panhandle and adjacent Alabama (Patrick et al. 1995). Disjunct in southeast North Carolina and northcentral South Carolina but not recently seen there (Weakley 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Geneva (01061)*
FL Clay (12019), Duval (12031), Nassau (12089), Putnam (12107)*
GA Ben Hill (13017), Brantley (13025)*, Bulloch (13031), Candler (13043)*, Charlton (13049), Coffee (13069), Colquitt (13071), Cook (13075)*, Emanuel (13107)*, Evans (13109), Irwin (13155), Jeff Davis (13161), Jenkins (13165), Liberty (13179), Long (13183), Tattnall (13267), Tift (13277)*, Toombs (13279), Turner (13287), Wayne (13305)*, Worth (13321)
NC Bladen (37017), Brunswick (37019)*
SC Chesterfield (45025)*, Darlington (45031)*, Richland (45079)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+*, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Wateree (03050104)+, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+, Canoochee (03060203)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Altamaha (03070106)+, Ohoopee (03070107)+, Satilla (03070201)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Nassau (03070205)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+, Alapaha (03110202)+, withlacoochee (03110203)+*, Little (03110204)+, Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+, Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect, autumn-blooming perennial herb, 6-8 dm tall. Flower heads have yellow ray flowers surrounding the dark purple disk. In fruit, the heads show a distinctive honycomb pattern.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Balduina is the only composite genus in which the fruiting head becomes a hardened, globose, "honeycomb" (Chafin 2007; Patrick et al. 1995). Also distinctive are its punctate leaves (Weakley 2007). Besides B. atropurpurea, only one other species of Balduina (B. uniflora) may be found in moist habitats. B. atropurpurea has reddish stem bases, multiple flowering branches in robust specimens, and purple disk flowers, while B. uniflora has greenish stem bases, usually only one or two flowering branches, and yellow disk flowers (Patrick et al. 1995). Helenium spp. often have purple disk flowers but they bloom in the spring and early summer and have winged stems whereas B. atropurpurea blooms in the fall (Chafin 2000).
Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Wet pine flatwoods, savannahs, peaty hillside seepage bogs, and pitcherplant bogs (Chafin 2000). Usually associated with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) or slash pine (P. elliottii).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Burn every 2 to 3 years during the growing season to control woody vegetation (Chafin 2000; Chafin 2007; Patrick et al. 1995). Prevent alterations to wetland hydrology by avoiding draining, ditching, firebreak construction, clearing, bedding, and soil disturbance (Chafin 2000; Chafin 2007). Hand thinning of shading trees may be beneficial (Patrick et al. 1995).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: A. Weakley (1994), rev. Amoroso/Maybury 6/96, rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. A. Tomaino (2008)
Management Information Edition Date: 14Oct1993
Management Information Edition Author: KIM LUTZ, FT. STEWART INVENTORY

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Chafin, L.G. 2007. Field guide to the rare plants of Georgia. State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 volumes. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lincicome, D.A. 1998. The rare perennial Balduina atropurpurea (Asteraceae) at Fort Stewart, Georgia. USACERL Technical Report 98/75 June 1998. US Army Corps of Engineers.

  • PARKER, E.S. AND S.B. JONES. 1975. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE GENUS BALDUINA (COMPOSITAE, HELIANTHEAE). BRITTONIA 27: 355-361.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • SMITH, I. 1994. ELEMENT STEWARDSHIP ABSTRACT: BALDUINA ATROPURPUREA. NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, AND NATURAL RESOURCES, DIVISION OF PARKS AND RECREATION, NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM. RALEIGH, NC.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2002. July 19-last update. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of July 19, 2002. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/weakley_flora/default.htm. Accessed 2003, April 11.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1983. Status report on Balduina atropurpurea Harper. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, FL.

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