Aythya marila - (Linnaeus, 1761)
Greater Scaup
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) (TSN 175130)
French Common Names: fuligule milouinan
Spanish Common Names: Pato Boludo-Mayor
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102413
Element Code: ABNJB11060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Aythya
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aythya marila
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species continue to decline for unknown reasons so its ranking needs regular re-visting for possible revisions. At this time, with an estimated one million or more, a G5 ranking is still most appropriate.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (26Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S5B,S5N), Arizona (S1N), Arkansas (S4N), California (SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4N), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (S4N), Georgia (S4), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S3N), Iowa (S2N), Kansas (S2N), Kentucky (S2S3N), Louisiana (S4N), Maine (S3S4N), Maryland (S4N), Massachusetts (S5N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNRN), Montana (SU), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S1N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S2N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNRN), Oregon (S4N), Pennsylvania (S2S3N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S3N), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S3N), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S3N), West Virginia (S3N), Wisconsin (S4N), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S4N), Labrador (S5B,S5M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S1B,S4M,S2N), Newfoundland Island (S4), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S4N), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S4N), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5M), Yukon Territory (S2S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Holarctic. BREEDS: in Northern America, northern Alaska east across Canada to Hudson Bay, central Quebec, and New Brunswick (McAlpine et al. 1988), south to northwestern British Columbia, southeastern Michigan. WINTERS: southeastern Alaska south to Baja California; from eastern Great Lakes area and Canadian Maritime Provinces to southern Florida and Gulf Coast; casual in Hawaii. Primary wintering areas include the coastal Pacific Northwest, southern and eastern Great Lakes, and Atlantic coast centering around Long Island Sound (Root 1988).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Basically an estimate. With one million birds, 20,000 square kilometers would be about 50 birds per square kilometer.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This is one of the few duck species that has a circumpolar distribution

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Population size of between 1.2 to 1.4 million birds by Wetlands International in 2006 (Birdlife International, 2014).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Basically unknown as to how many are "good". But with an estimated population size of over one million individuals at least 41 of them should be "good." (Birdlife International, 2014)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Declines may be due to the effect of poor water quality on food resources and/or poor reproduction caused by contaminants (Barclay and Zingo 1994). Global warming has also been suggested as a threat, with the increase of non-breeding birds during the summer in tundra perhaps be attributable to unsuitable nesting habitat (Kessel, Rocque, and Barclay, 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Data from Long Island Sound in the early 1990s show relatively low proportions of young birds, suggesting that reproductive success has been low. Since 1978, annual indices have varied from weak increasing to no trend to increasing significantly for flocked birds (Kessle, Rocque, and Barclay, 2002).

Long-term Trend: Decline of >30%
Long-term Trend Comments: Wintering populations in Long Island Sound decreased greatly (by one order of magnitude) from the 1950s to the early 1990s (Barclay and Zingo 1994). No other areas in North America showed increases that might indicate a shift in wintering location. Recent declines in wintering populations also are evident in northeastern North America, the Atlantic Flyway, and for all other North American flyways. Aerial transects of breeding areas do not indicate any declines (stable 1955-1992). National Audubon (2014) has estimated a 75% decline since 1967.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable to not intrinsically vulnerable.
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Greater Scaup may be moderately vulnerable in the long-term if global warming eliminates and reduces the size of its suitable breeding habitat (Kessel, Rocque, and Barclay, 2002).

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Environmental Specificity Comments: No major environmental specificity

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventory of number separate from Lesser Scaup is needed.

Protection Needs: Protect birds from pollutants, especially heavy metals.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Holarctic. BREEDS: in Northern America, northern Alaska east across Canada to Hudson Bay, central Quebec, and New Brunswick (McAlpine et al. 1988), south to northwestern British Columbia, southeastern Michigan. WINTERS: southeastern Alaska south to Baja California; from eastern Great Lakes area and Canadian Maritime Provinces to southern Florida and Gulf Coast; casual in Hawaii. Primary wintering areas include the coastal Pacific Northwest, southern and eastern Great Lakes, and Atlantic coast centering around Long Island Sound (Root 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2000; NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bingham (16011), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051)
WY Sublette (56035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Big Sandy (14040104)+
17 Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Clutch size averages about 8-9. Incubation: 23-27 days, by female. Males usually abandon females in early incubation. Young are tended by female, fledge in 9-10 weeks. May nest in colonies of 50+ pairs.
Ecology Comments: May gather in winter flocks of up to 50,000 individuals.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward in spring, usually arriving on breeding grounds in April-May (late May-early June in far north). Departs far north by end of September, southward migration through U.S. occurs mostly in October-November (Terres 1980). Scaup that breed in northern Alaska, northern Yukon, and Mackenzie Delta winter on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern U.S. (Johnson and Herter 1989). See Johnson and Herter 1989 for information on early summer molt migration in northern Alaska and northwestern Canada.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: In migration and winter, found in bays, estuaries, and large open inland lakes and rivers.

Breeds near shores of ponds and lakes, in marshes, or on islands, primarily in forested tundra and northern borders of the taiga; among grass or shrubs, or under spruce boughs. The nest is a hollow lined with plant material, down and feathers.

Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds on aquatic plants and animals. Coastally mollusks (clams, scallops, mussels, etc.) comprise a significant portion of the diet. In other areas eats seeds, leaves, stems of plants (sedges, pondweeds, muskgrass, wild celery, etc.).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 46 centimeters
Weight: 957 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Direct estimates of wintering and breeding Greater Scaup numbers separate from Lesser Scaup is necessary for proper management of this species . Also possible effects of heavy-metals on the species reproductive success and survival are needed. (Kessel, Rocque, and Barclay, 2002)
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Mar2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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