Avena fatua - L.
Wild Oat
Other English Common Names: Common Wild Oats
Other Common Names: wild oat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Avena fatua L. (TSN 41458)
French Common Names: folle avoine
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160307
Element Code: PMPOA0S030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Avena
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Avena fatua
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (08Apr2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Alaska (SNA), Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Florida (SU), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Northwest Territories (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA), Yukon Territory (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ALexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, CO, CTexotic, DEexotic, FL, HIexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, MTexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, NTexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic, YTexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: A problem weed world wide causing most problems in agricultural systems. Found throughout much of the U.S. and considered widely naturalized in the western U.S. Occurs in sand dunes, annual grasslands, openings in woodlands, coastal slopes, coastal sage scrub, roadsides, pastures, grain fields and waste areas. Typically, cool-season grasses are fast-growers, very competitive and have persistent seed banks (with Avena fatua seeds can remain dormant for as long as 10 years). They also tend to create a larger amount of biomass than most native species which can lead to more fuel for fires. This species has become resistant to some herbicides in at least eight states as well in other countries. The number of sites and acreage is increasing with the herbicide-resistant Wild Oat.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Medium
I-Rank Review Date: 25Jun2004
Evaluator: Killeffer, T.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe and Asia (Weber 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Sand dunes (Wisconsin State Herbarium 2004). Annual grassland and openings in woodland (Friends of Bidwell Park, no date). Coastal slopes and coastal sage scrub (CaEPPC 1999).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High significance
Comments: Typically, cool season grasses are fast growers and create a larger amount of biomass than most native species which can lead to more fuel for fires such as in the Sonoran Desert (James 1995). Considered widely naturalized in the western U.S. (Tellman 2002).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Annual, cool season grass (James 1995).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Annual, cool season grasses are typically very competitive by growing faster, having persistent seed bank, using quantities of nutrients (James 1995).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reported individual impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: The habitat types suggests it typically needs some sort of disturbance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Reported from almost every state except South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas and questionably present in Tennessee (Kartesz 1999). "Common throughout much of western North America" (Whitson 1996).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Unknown
Comments: Considered widely naturalized in the western U.S. (Tellman 2002).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Since it occupies most of the U.S., then it most likely occupies at least half of the biogeographic units (Kartesz 1999 and TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Sand dunes (Wisconsin State Herbarium 2004). Annual grassland and openings in woodland (Friends of Bidwell Park, no date). Coastal slopes and coastal sage scrub (CaEPPC 1999). Roadsides, pastures, and waste areas (Whitson 1996). Grain fields and waste places (Muenscher 1955).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Already occupies most of the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Insignificant
Comments: Already occupies most of the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Since it grows on roadsides, it has the potential to travel on vehicles. Since it is mainly a problem in agricultural fields, it may be redistributed at harvest.

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: The number of sites and acreage is increasing with the herbicide resistant Wild Oat (Heap 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: The habitat types suggests it typically needs some sort of disturbance.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Also non-native to Canada (Kartesz 1999), South America, Africa and Australia (Weber 2003).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Does not normally reproduce vegetatively; 500 seeds/ind. plant; reproduction may occur 2 - 3 months after germination; can emerge from deep soil layers (Weber 2003). Seeds can remain dormant for as long as 10 years (Whitson 1996).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Medium

17. General Management Difficulty:High significance
Comments: Species has developed a resistance to Group A/1, N/8, Z/8, K1/3, and B/2 herbicides in eight U.S. states as well as several other countries with the resistant Wild Oat increasing in number of sites and in abundance (Heap 2003). Seeds can remain dormant for as long as 10 years (Whitson 1996).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High significance
Comments: Seeds can remain dormant for as long as 10 years (Whitson 1996).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown
Comments: Could no find any control techniques except that it is becoming herbicide resistant.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Some of the habitats would be hard to access such as the coastal areas.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. The CalEPPC List: Exotic Pest Plants of Greatest Ecological Concern in California. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Pest_Plant_List/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxviii + 911 pp.

  • Friends of Bidwell Park. No date. Invasive Plant Species in Bidwell Park, Chico, CA. Online. Available: http://www.friendsofbidwellpark.org/invasivetable.html (accessed 2004).

  • Heap, I. 2003. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Supported by the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC), the North American Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (NAHRAC), and the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). Online. Available: www.weedscience.com (accessed 2004).

  • James, D. 1995. The threat of exotic grasses to the biodiversity of semiarid ecosystems. Aridlands Newsletter. No. 37, Spring/Summer 1995. [http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln37/james.html]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Muenscher, W.C. 1955. Weeds. 2nd Edition. MacMillian, NY.

  • Tellman, B., editor. 2002. Invasive Exotic Species in the Sonoran Region. The University of Arizona Press and the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson. 424 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

  • Whitson, T.D. (ed.), L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, R. Parker. 1996. Weeds of the West. 5th edition. The Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with the Western United States Land Grant Universities Cooperative Extension Services, Newark, CA. 630 pp.

  • Wisconsin State Herbarium. 2004, January 20, 2004 last update. Wisconsin state herbarium vascular plant species database. Available: http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/. (Accessed 2004).

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