Aspidoscelis sexlineata - (Linnaeus, 1766)
Six-lined Racerunner
Other English Common Names: six-lined racerunner
Synonym(s): Aspidoscelis sexlineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) ;Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 174014)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102815
Element Code: ARACJ02110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Lizards
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Teiidae Aspidoscelis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cnemidophorus sexlineatus
Taxonomic Comments: Reeder et al. (2002) examined phylogenetic relationships of the whiptail lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus based on a combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA, morphology, and allozymes. They determined that Cnemidophorus in the traditional sense is paraphyletic and thus in need of nomenclatural revision. Rather than subsume all cnemidophorine species (including Kentropyx) in a single large genus (Ameiva), they proposed a split that placed the North American "Cnemidophorus" clade in the monophyletic genus Aspidoscelis; under this arrangement, South American taxa remain in the genus Cnemidophorus.

See Walker et al. (1990) for information on continuing hybridization between A. sexlineata and A. tesselata in Colorado.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Aug2005
Global Status Last Changed: 29Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Colorado (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S3), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S4), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (S4), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S5), New Mexico (S4), North Carolina (S5), Oklahoma (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (S4S5), Texas (S5), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S2S3), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from eastern Wyoming, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, Virgina, and Maryland south to southern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and southern Floridat (Trauth and McAllister 1996).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by at least several hundred occurrences or subpopulations (e.g., see map in Trauth and McAllister 1996).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 1,000,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats have been identified. Locally, some populations have declined or disappeared as a result of conversion of habitat to human uses. Historically, much habitat may have been lost with agricultural expansion.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or very slowly declining.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from eastern Wyoming, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, Virgina, and Maryland south to southern Texas, the Gulf Coast, and southern Floridat (Trauth and McAllister 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NM, OK, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV, WY

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Louisa (19115), Monona (19133), Muscatine (19139)
MI Tuscola (26157)
OK Atoka (40005), Cherokee (40021), Ellis (40045), Muskogee (40101), Sequoyah (40135), Texas (40139)
SD Bennett (46007), Fall River (46047), Haakon (46055), Shannon (46113), Todd (46121), Union (46127), Ziebach (46137)
WI Crawford (55023), Dunn (55033), Grant (55043), Pepin (55091), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), Vernon (55123)
WV Morgan (54065)
WY Goshen (56015), Platte (56031), Sweetwater (56037)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Cacapon-Town (02070003)+
04 Cass (04080205)+
07 Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+
10 Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Lower Cheyenne (10120112)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Little White (10140203)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Maple (10230005)+
11 Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201)+, Upper Beaver (11100101)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+
14 Big Sandy (14040104)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: These lizards have a long and slender body, small granular scales on the back, and larger rectangular scales on the belly. Three pale stripes extend along each side of the back, and there is a middorsal stripe that sometimes is divided into two stripes. There are no light spots or bars in the dark fields between the stripes. In some areas, the neck and shoulders of adults often have a bright greenish wash. The scales on the undersurface of the base of the forelimb are not enlarged. Maximum size is about 10.5 inches (27 cm) in total length, 3.5 inches (8.8 cm) snout-vent length. Mature males have a pale blue belly (whitish in females). Hatchlings are 1.2-1.4 inches (31-35 mm) in snout-vent length, with a bright blue tail and light stripes that contrast sharply with the dark areas on the shoulders. Source: Hammerson (1999).
Reproduction Comments: In most areas, courtship and mating occur in late spring or early summer. Reproductive females deposit 1-3 clutches of 1-6 eggs during May-August; in the north, egg laying does not begin until June. Eggs are laid in nests dug in soft soil or sawdust piles or under logs or other sheltering objects. Eggs hatch in about 2 months, mostly late July (August in the north) to September. Individuals become sexually mature after their second hibernation.
Ecology Comments: In Kansas, home range size averaged about 800-1,000 sq m, but individuals sometimes roamed outside their normal range and occasionally moved to new areas hundreds of meters away (Fitch 1958).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Six-lined racerunners inhabit grassland, sandhills, sandy or gravelly banks and floodplains of streams, sparsely vegetated rocky areas at the base of mountains, woodland edges and open woods, beach dunes, and similar situations with full or partial sun exposure. They generally take shelter underground or under rocks or other objects on the ground; sometimes they escape threats by submerging in pools of water and may remained submerged by at least a few minutes. Eggs are laid in a nest dug in soft soil or sawdust pile (Mount 1975) or under logs or other sheltering objects (Barbour 1971).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats various insects, spiders, and snails (Collins 1982).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Racerunners are active only during warm daylight hours but generally seek shelter during the hottest midday period in summer. Activity occurs May-September in the north and over a somewhat longer period in areas to the south. Those active in late summer and fall are mostly hatchlings. In Georgia and Alabama, juveniles emerge as early as mid-March, adults mid-April to early May (Etheridge 1983).
Length: 27 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Teiid Lizards (Whiptails and Others)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that lizards rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh; densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement (but note that some rural residential areas are suitable habitat for some species).
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Teiids have home ranges that are generally less (often much less) than 1 ha but sometimes move hundreds of meters from one location to another (Fitch 1958, Jorgensen and Tanner 1963, McCoy 1965, Knopf 1966, Lewis and Saliva 1987, Anderson 1993, Eifler and Eifler 1998). Little is known about dispersal distances, but these lizards clearly are capable of making extensive movements.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value. The separation distance for suitable habitat takes into consideration the small home range sizes of these lizards, their tendency to occur throughout patches of suitable habitat, and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Nov2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anderson, R. A., and H. M. Tiebout, III. 1993. The effects of timber management practices on the lizards of xeric pineland habitats: an investigation of the Florida sand pine scrub. Final report to The Nature Conservancy.

  • Barbour, R. W. 1971. Amphibians and reptiles of Kentucky. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 334 pp.

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  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

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