Aspidoscelis exsanguis - (Lowe, 1956)
Chihuahuan Spotted Whiptail
Other English Common Names: Chihuahuan spotted whiptail
Synonym(s): Cnemidophorus exsanguis Lowe, 1956
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cnemidophorus exsanguis Lowe, 1956 (TSN 174017)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103253
Element Code: ARACJ02030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Lizards
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Teiidae Aspidoscelis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cnemidophorus exsanguis
Taxonomic Comments: Reeder et al. (2002) examined phylogenetic relationships of the whiptail lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus based on a combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA, morphology, and allozymes. They determined that Cnemidophorus in the traditional sense is paraphyletic and thus in need of nomenclatural revision. Rather than subsume all cnemidophorine species (including Kentropyx) in a single large genus (Ameiva), they proposed a split that placed the North American "Cnemidophorus" clade in the monophyletic genus Aspidoscelis; under this arrangement, South American taxa remain in the genus Cnemidophorus.

This species is a parthenogenetic allotriploid of hybrid origin. Allozyme and mDNA data indicate that C. exsanguis probably arose by the hybridization of C. septemvittatus or C. scalaris with an allodiploid intermediate form (or forms) created by one or more earlier hybridization events involving a male C. inornatus and a female C. costatus or C. burti stictogrammus (see Stuart 1991). Putative similarity to C. flagellicaudus and C. sonorae is overrated according to Frost and Wright (1988). This species formerly was included in other species of the sexlineatus species group. See Stuart (1991) for a review of the nomenclatural history of this species.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Aug2005
Global Status Last Changed: 28Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2), New Mexico (S5), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from the upper Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Canadian River valleys of New Mexico southward through western Texas to central Chihuahua (Rio Conchos and Rio Papigochic drainage basins) and westward to southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora, at elevations of 760-2,440 meters (2,500-8,000 feet) (Stuart 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by hundreds of occurrences or subpopulations (e.g., see maps in Stuart 1991 and Degenhardt et al. 1996).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats have been identified.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulation, and population size probably are relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from the upper Rio Grande, Pecos River, and Canadian River valleys of New Mexico southward through western Texas to central Chihuahua (Rio Conchos and Rio Papigochic drainage basins) and westward to southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora, at elevations of 760-2,440 meters (2,500-8,000 feet) (Stuart 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Greenlee (04011), Pima (04019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)+*, San Simon (15040006)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: An all-female, parthenogenetic species. Lays 1-2 clutches of 1-6 eggs, May-August. Eggs hatch in about 45 days (Behler and King 1979).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Habitats include desert, desert grassland, oak-pine woodland, and ponderosa pine, on rocky slopes, along sandy washes, and in canyons (Stebbins 2003). The species occurs primarily in Madrean evergreen woodlands (oak-juniper, juniper, juniper-pinyon associations) on mountain bajadas and valley sides; it ranges upslope to Great Basin conifer and lower Madrean montane forests, and it descends to semi-desert grassland, Chihuahuan desert scrub, and (locally) riparian floodplain communities (Stuart 1991). Eggs are laid in a nest dug in soil or underground.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats insects, spiders, and scorpions (Stebbins 1985).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Length: 31 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Teiid Lizards (Whiptails and Others)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that lizards rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh; densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement (but note that some rural residential areas are suitable habitat for some species).
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Teiids have home ranges that are generally less (often much less) than 1 ha but sometimes move hundreds of meters from one location to another (Fitch 1958, Jorgensen and Tanner 1963, McCoy 1965, Knopf 1966, Lewis and Saliva 1987, Anderson 1993, Eifler and Eifler 1998). Little is known about dispersal distances, but these lizards clearly are capable of making extensive movements.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value. The separation distance for suitable habitat takes into consideration the small home range sizes of these lizards, their tendency to occur throughout patches of suitable habitat, and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Aug2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Aug2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Dessauer, H. C., and C. J. Cole. 1989. Diversity between and within nominal forms of unisexual teiid lizards. Pages 49-71 in R. M. Dawley and J. P. Bogart, editors. Evolution and ecology of unisexual vertebrates. Bull. 466, New York State Mus., Albany.

  • Fitch, H. S. 1970. Reproductive cycles of lizards and snakes. Univ. Kansas Museum Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 52:1-247.

  • Frost, D. R., and J. W. Wright. 1988. The taxonomy of uniparental species, with special reference to parthenogenetic CNEMIDOPHORUS (Squamata: Teiidae). Syst. Zool. 37:200-209.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • JORGENSEN, ERIC E. AND STEPHEN DEMARAIS. 1998. HERPETOFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH ARROYOS AND UPLANDS IN FOOTHILLS OF THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 43:441-448.

  • MORITZ, C.C., J.W. WRIGHT, AND W.M. BROWN. 1989. MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA ANALYSES AND THE ORIGIN AND RELATIVE AGE OF PARTHENOGENETIC LIZARDS (GENUS CNEMIDOPHORUS). III. C. VELOX AND C. EXSANGUIS. EVOLUTION 43(5):958-968.

  • Maslin, T. P., and D. M. Secoy. 1986. A checklist of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae). Univ. Colorado Mus., Contrib. in Zoology No. 1. 60 pp.

  • Reeder, T. W., C. J. Cole, and H. C. Dessauer. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of whiptail lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): a test of monophyly, reevaluation of karyotypic evolution, and review of hybrid origins. American Museum Novitates (3365):1-61.

  • SMITH, D.D. 1989. A COMPARISON OF FOOD HABITS OF SYMPATRIC CNEMIDOPHORUS EXSANGUIS AND CNEMIDOPHORUS GULARIS (LACERTILIA:TEIIDAE). SOUTHWEST. NAT. 34(3):418-420.

  • STUART, JAMES N. 1991. CNEMIDOPHORUS EXSANGUIS. CAT. AMER. AMPHIB. REPT.:516.1-516.4.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Stuart, J. N. 1991. CNEMIDOPHORUS EXSANGUIS. Cat. Am. Amph. Rept. 516.1-516.4.

  • WARD, ROCKY, EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, AND TIM L. KING. 1994. ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES TO TERRESTRIAL REPTILIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 46(1):21-26.

  • WARD, ROCKY, EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, AND TIMOTHY L. KING. 1990. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES OF TERRESTRIAL REPTILIAN DISTRIBUTION IN TEXAS: AN ALTERNATE VIEW. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 35(4):441-445.

  • Wright, J. W., and L. J. Vitt. 1993. Biology of whiptail lizards (genus Cnemidophorus). Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, Norman, Oklahoma.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.