Arnoglossum diversifolium - (Torr. & Gray) H.E. Robins.
Variableleaf Indian-plantain
Other Common Names: variableleaf Indian plantain
Synonym(s): Cacalia diversifolia Torr. & Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arnoglossum diversifolium (Torr. & A. Gray) H. Rob. (TSN 36584)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134674
Element Code: PDASTD7020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Arnoglossum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arnoglossum diversifolium
Taxonomic Comments: The genus name "Cacalia" was used for a group of plants now generally recognized as belonging to eight genera, and has been variously used for differing portions of that group. In 1998, the Committee for Spermatophyta published (Taxon 47: 444) its decision to reject this name nomenclaturally, in order to avoid confusion. Thus, all plants formerly called Cacalia must now be classified into other genera. LEM 3Jun98. USFWS formerly treated this species as Cacalia diversifolia (Fed. Reg., 6 Oct. 1985).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 06Oct1985
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Found in panhandle and northcentral Florida, southeastern Alabama, and southwestern Georgia with only a small number of occurrences range-wide. Few of the populations are protected. Threatened primarily by alterations to the hydrology of the floodplains and streams where it occurs. Non-native species and trampling are also threats. In 2011, there was a petition to list the species, but its status is under review as of 2015.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S2), Georgia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Florida panhandle and adjacent Alabama and Georgia; disjunct in Levy and Putnam counties, Florida (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2006).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 30 extant occurrences as of 2007, 9 of which occur in Georgia (Owers 2010).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Changes in hydrology from ditching, impounding streams to form ponds, draining wetlands, and clearcutting forested bottomlands are the greatest threat to this species (Owers 2010). Non-native plants and especially, Chinese Privet, Ligustrum sinense, are a threat to this species. In Alabama, impoundment or daming of streams for fishing (this species occurs near streams) is a potential threat (pers. comm. A. Schotz). Trampling is also a threat at sites where fishing occurs (Wunderlin 1980).

Short-term Trend Comments: This species is stable in Alabama. It is suspected that this species in Florida is also stable (pers. comm. A. Schotz).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Favored by some disturbance (selective clearing), but not heavy clearing. Not favored where flooded year round.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species is somewhat of a specialist. It requires hydric soils associated with streambanks (pers. comm. A. Schotz).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Florida panhandle and adjacent Alabama and Georgia; disjunct in Levy and Putnam counties, Florida (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Houston (01069)
FL Calhoun (12013), Holmes (12059), Jackson (12063), Leon (12073), Levy (12075), Putnam (12107), Walton (12131), Washington (12133)
GA Baker (13007), Early (13099), Miller (13201)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oklawaha (03080102)+, Waccasassa (03110101)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Spring (03130010)+, Chipola (03130012)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb from a stout rhizome with a rosette of oval or elliptic leaves and with stem leaves that are 3-5 lobed and somewhat arrowhead-shaped. The flowering stem that arises from the overwintering rosette is erect, coarsely angled, and purplish. The inflorescence is a narrowly convex to flat-topped cluster with pale to bright lavender flower heads.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Arnoglossum diversifolium has stems that are angled, lower leaves that are heart or lance-shaped, upper leaves that are green on both sides, and white to lavender flowers. In contrast, A. ovatum has round stems, leaves that are whitened on the lower surface, and pale yellow flowers; A. atriplicifolium has waxy stems, leaves that are whitened on the lower surface, and white flowers; A. sulcatum has lower leaves that are oval-shaped and that taper gradually to the base forming wings on the leaf stalk, and yellow flowers (Chafin 2007).
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Floodplain forests over limestone, banks of woodland streams, seasonally wet places in richly wooded hammocks, and calcareous swamps (Godfrey and Wooten 1981; Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2006; Chafin 2007; Weakley 2008).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Dec2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D. (1985), rev. D.L. White (1990), rev. L. Chafin (1997), rev. L. Oliver (2004), rev. A. Tomaino (2008), rev. L. Oliver (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Anderson, L.C. 1998. Arnoglossum album (Asteraceae): New Species from Northern Florida. Sida 18(2): 377-84.

  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Chafin, L.G. 2007. Field guide to the rare plants of Georgia. State Botanical Garden of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 666 pp.

  • Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 2010.Guide to Natural Communities in Florida,  Alluvial Forest. Accessed onlin on Dec. 15, 2015 at: http://fnai.org/PDF/NC/Alluvial_Forest_Final_2010.pdf

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Accepted taxon names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Owers, K. and L. Chafin. 2007, revised by K. Owers in 2010. Plant factsheet on Arnoglossum diversifolium. Accessed online on 12/15/15 at: http://georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/accounts/plants/arnoglossum_diversifolium.pdf

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Weakley, A. S. 2008. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, northern Florida, and surrounding areas. Working Draft of 7 April 2008. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2008).

  • Weakley, Alan S.  2015.  Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States.  Unpublished mss. available as .pdf from the Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  1320 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. and B.F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd edition. University Press of Florida, Tampa. 788 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P., et al. 1980c. Endangered and Threatened Plant Status Surveys: Status Report on Arnoglossum diversifolium. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.

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