Aristida rhizomophora - Swallen
Florida Three-awn Grass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aristida rhizomophora Swallen (TSN 41406)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154627
Element Code: PMPOA0K0Z0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Aristida
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aristida rhizomophora
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Jul2001
Global Status Last Changed: 24Jul2001
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Florida endemic with limited range. Drainage, residential development, conversion to citrus groves, and fire suppression are all rapidly eliminating the most suitable habitat for this plant. Yet, where suitable habitat exists , the species can be abundant. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database currently contains records for 41 sites in 14 counties for this species. Several of the sites are found on Department of Defense properties.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Aristida rhizomophora is endemic to northeastern and peninsular Florida.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: 41 sites known in 14 counties in Florida as of 05/01.

Population Size Comments: May dominate in habitat if regularly burned

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Appears not to survive site preparation following timbering and may be sensitive to drainage alterations. Agricultural and urban development of habitat is occuring rapidly.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Resistant except to deep soil disturbance following drainage.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Aristida rhizomophora is endemic to northeastern and peninsular Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect, perennial grass, reaching 6-8 dm tall. Stems are rounded and smooth.
General Description: A perennial, relatively slender grass, with narrow leaf blades and usually tufted; inflorescence usually a narrow and spikelike panicle; spikelets 1-flowered (Godfrey and Wooten 1979).
Technical Description: The following description is from Hitchcock (1951). Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 65 to 80 cm tall, producing well-developed scaly rhizomes; blades firm, flat or folded, 7 to 10 cm long, 1 to 2 mm wide, those of the innovations flexous, as much as 30 cm long; panicle flexous, 20 to 30 cm long, the distant branches somewhat spreading, few-flowered, spikelet-bearing from near the base; glumes acuminate, usually awned, the first 8 to 14 mm long, the second 12 to 17 mm long (including the awn); lemma 9 to 12 mm long, the callus 1 mm long, the awns flexous, curved or loosely twisted at base, spreading, the central often reflexed by a semicircular bend, 18 to 28 mm long, the lateral 15 to 20 mm long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Aristida rhizomophora has well-developed scaly rhizomes, which are unusual for species in the genus Aristida.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Aristida, like most grasses, reproduces sexually. The great majority of species in the family have perfect flowers and are wind-pollinated. Cleistogamy has been reported in a few species of Aristida (Connor 1979, Campbell et al. 1983). The long awns on Aristida seeds can adhere to animals, providing a biotic dispersal vector.
Ecology Comments: Flowers only after fire or mechanical disturbance, but apparently does not survive "site prep" of foresters, and may be sensitive to drainage alterations. (A.F. Johnson, unpubl.)
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Wetter portions of the ecotone between the pine flatwoods-palmetto community and the grassy wet prairie communities of eastcentral Florida. Also can be found in wet pine savannahs and seepage slopes.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Fire or mechnical disturbance is necessary for flowering.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Nov1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Johnson, Ann F. (12/90), rev. A. Wildman, TNC-HO, rev. L.G. Chafin (7/01)
Management Information Edition Date: 17Apr1995
Management Information Edition Author: LINDA DUEVER (FOR CLIFTON EAKES, SHTF)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): A. WILDMAN TNC-HO, REV. M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Campbell, C.S., J.A. Quinn, G.P. Cheplick, and T.J. Bell. 1983. Cleistogamy in grasses. Annual Review Ecology Systematics 14: 411-441.

  • Connor, H.E. 1979. Breeding systems in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand J. Botany 17: 547-573.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1987. Unpublished plant characterization database information on vascular plant species of the U.S., Canada, and Greenland.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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