Aristida dichotoma var. curtissii - Gray ex S. Wats. & Coult.
Curtiss' Three-awn Grass
Other English Common Names: Curtiss' Three-awn
Other Common Names: Curtiss' threeawn
Synonym(s): Aristida basiramea var. curtissii (Gray) Shinners ;Aristida curtissii (Gray ex S. Wats. & Coult.) Nash.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aristida dichotoma var. curtissii A. Gray (TSN 185304)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154182
Element Code: PMPOA0K0C1
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Aristida
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aristida dichotoma var. curtissii
Taxonomic Comments: Listed in Kartesz checklist (1994) as a variety of Aristida dichotoma; treated as A. curtissii by several other authors. Also has been treated as Aristida basiramea var. curtissii.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Aug1995
Global Status Last Changed: 01Aug1995
Rounded Global Status: T5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread from Ontario to Florida and from South Dakota to Texas; fairly common in Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, infrequent in eastern part of range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3?), Illinois (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Maryland (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Jersey (S3), North Carolina (S3), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S1S2), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Florida to Oklahoma, north to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wyoming.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Florida to Oklahoma, north to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wyoming.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, VA, WI, WV, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Anne Arundel (24003), Calvert (24009), Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033), Wicomico (24045)
NJ Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Gloucester (34015), Ocean (34029)
PA Bedford (42009)*, Delaware (42045), Lancaster (42071)*, York (42133)*
WY Weston (56045)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+*, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+
10 Beaver (10120107)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Clumped annual grass, seeds with a long twisted bristle.
Technical Description: Following are descriptions of both the full species and this variety. A. dichotoma: Annual; culms usually tufted, wiry, much branched at base and usually forking at the nodes, 0.4-4 (-6) dm high; sheaths distended at maturity, borne to the summit of culms; blades 0.5-2 mm wide, becoming involute; panicle simple or subsimple, linear-lanceolate, the terminal 2-10 cm long, the lateral often sessile within the sheaths; glumes subequal, 6-9 mm long, cuspidate; lemmas 5-7 mm long, sparingly appressed-pubescent; lateral awns 0.5-2 mm long, erect; middle awn 3-7 mm long, usually coiled at base in drying.

Variety curtissii: only slightly branched; panicles with subdistant spikelets; glumes more unequal, the 2nd 8-12 mm long, the 1st two-thirds to three-fourths as long; lemma 7-10 mm long, often smoother; central awn 6-10 mm long, lateral awns 1.5-4 mm long. (Fernald 1950)

Diagnostic Characteristics: See under technical description for distinguishing characters of the variety. A. dichotoma may be distinguished from others in the genus by this combination of characters: lemma not articulate with the column of the awns; lateral awns usually more than 1 mm long; central awn spirally coiled at base, lateral awns straight; plant annual; lateral awns much shorter than the central, erect. (Hitchcock 1951)
Duration: ANNUAL
Reproduction Comments: Both cleistogamy and chasmogamy present in the genus (Connor 1979). Long awn may adhere to feathers or fur.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: "Open dry ground of fields, roadsides" (Hough 1983).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allred, K. W. 2007. Aristida. Pages 314-342 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Connor, H.E. 1979. Breeding systems in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand J. Botany 17: 547-573.

  • DAVIS, C.A. AND MARYLAND NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM. 1994. RARE, THREATENED, AND ENDANGERED SPECIES AND NATURAL AREA SURVEY OF ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE AND ITS REMOTE PROPERTIES, BRANDYWINE AND DAVIDSONVILLE COMMUNICATION SITES. FINAL REPORT OF FINDINGS AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS. 278 PP WITH MAPS, APPENDICES, ETC.

  • Dorn, R. D. 1992. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, second edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxv + 781 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

  • HOWIE, S.L. AND K.C. WATSON. 1995. SPECIES AND NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF CONCERN ON U.S. AIR FORCE LANDS: AN INSTALLATION SPECIFIC HANDBOOK FOR ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE. THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, ARLINGTON, VA. 494 PP.

  • Hallsten, G.P., Q.D. Skinner, and A.A. Beetle. 1987. Grasses of Wyoming, 3rd Ed. Research Journal 202, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 pp.

  • STASZ, J.L. 1990. LETTER OF 24 SEPTEMBER TO R.W. TYNDALL. RE: SITE VISIT SOUTH SIDE MD RT 4 NEAR WAYSONS CORNER.

  • Skinner, Q. D. 2010. A Field Guide to Wyoming Grasses. Education Resources Publishing, Cumming, GA.

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