Arenaria paludicola - B.L. Robins.
Marsh Sandwort
Other Common Names: marsh sandwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arenaria paludicola B.L. Robins. (TSN 20267)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152842
Element Code: PDCAR040L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pink Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Arenaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arenaria paludicola
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 18Jun1987
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Historically known from 15 disjunct sites along the Pacific coast from southern to northern California and in Washington. The species' two currently known U.S. sites are in San Luis Obispo County, California, with fewer than 10 individuals. The species' habitat has been urbanized at most of the historic sites. The individuals that remain may be threatened by changes in hydrology due to well drilling and water uptake by non-native eucalyptus trees, and by shading and competition from the dense eucalyptus stands. Recently found in Mexico, where its status is little known.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1), Washington (SX)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (03Aug1993)
Comments on USESA: Arenaria paludicola was proposed endangered on September 30, 1991 and determined endangered on August 3, 1993.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Historic range included marshes in Washington (Pierce and perhaps San Juan counties) and California (San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz and San Bernardino counties.) Recently collected in Mexico (Recovery Plan, 1998).  As of 2015, most of the occurrences for this species were extirpated, and there may be only one left (pers. comm. R. Bittman).  There is a report for Mexico from 1997, originally reported in 1995, which is doubtful (pers. comm. K. Lazar).

Area of Occupancy: 2 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Two sites known to be extant in California. No known extant sites in Washington. Recently collected in Mexico (Recovery Plan, 1998).

Population Size Comments: One U.S. occurrence with fewer than 10 plants, the other with more than 85 (Recovery Plan, 1998).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Only 1 occurrence ranked A or B.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is affected by an accelerated rate of succession due to an altered hydrologic regime created by human activities. This species inhabits marshlands which would take over hundreds of even thousands of years convert to more mesic habitat, but human activities are increasing the speed of this process. The drop in the water table is not completely understood, however, planted eucalyptus trees which have extensive root systems that absorb much water from the soil are believed to be part of the problem. These trees were planted in Nipomo Mesa in the 1800s and spread to the lower portion of the Black Lake Canyon. Threatened by proposed drilling of water wells associated with a proposed housing development. In addition, a series of below-average rainfall years has dropped the base flow within Black Lake Canyon, which may have altered the hydrological regime for the small population there. Increased sedimentation also has contributed to the altered hydrologic regime. The increased sedimentation is from human recreational activities on sandy soils, such as trail and off road vehicle use that cause erosion channels that send soils from the upper slopes and deposits it in the bottom lands where this species grows (USFWS 1993).  Other threats in addition to development and alteration of the hydrologic regimes are also high, including:  vehicle use, erosion and non-native plants (pers. comm. R. Bittman 2015).

Short-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Short-term Trend Comments: Historic locations in California and Washington have been surveyed, but the species has only been relocated at two sites in San Luis Obispo County, California.  Thirteen of the 15 occurrences known are extirpated.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Sensitive to disturbance; specialized habitat and wetlands are vanishing.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Historic range included marshes in Washington (Pierce and perhaps San Juan counties) and California (San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz and San Bernardino counties.) Recently collected in Mexico (Recovery Plan, 1998).  As of 2015, most of the occurrences for this species were extirpated, and there may be only one left (pers. comm. R. Bittman).  There is a report for Mexico from 1997, originally reported in 1995, which is doubtful (pers. comm. K. Lazar).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, WAextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Los Angeles (06037)*, Riverside (06065)*, San Bernardino (06071)*, San Francisco (06075)*, San Luis Obispo (06079), Santa Cruz (06087)
WA Grays Harbor (53027)*, King (53033)*, Pierce (53053)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Queets-Quinault (17100102)+*, Puyallup (17110014)+*, Puget Sound (17110019)+*
18 San Pablo Bay (18050002)+*, San Lorenzo-Soquel (18060001)+, Central Coastal (18060006)+, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+*, San Jacinto (18070202)+*, Santa Ana (18070203)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with erect or trailing stems, up to 1 m long. The opposite leaves are narrow and sharp-pointed. Flowers (May-August) are small and white and are borne singly on stalks arising from the leaf axils.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Freshwater marshes from close to sea level to 450 m elevation. Plants have been found in areas with shallow standing water and with no standing water. Substrates are saturated, acidic, organic bog soils.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Apr2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bittman, R.L and L. Oliver
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Jul1997

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2005. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 5. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae: Caryophyllales, Polygonales, and Plumbaginales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. vii + 656 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Smith, C.F. 1998. A flora of the Santa Barbara region, California. 2nd edition. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden and Capra Press, Santa Barbara. 391 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Determination of endangered status of two plants. Arenaria paludicola (Marsh Sandwort) and Rorippa gambellii (Gambel's Watercress). Federal Register 58(19):41378-41384. 3 August 1993.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Draft recovery plan for marsh sandwort (Arenaria paludicola) and Gambel's watercress (Rorippa gambelii). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. 48+ pp.

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