Ardisia elliptica - Thunb.
Shoebutton
Synonym(s): Ardisia solanacea Roxb.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ardisia elliptica Thunb. (TSN 183615) ;Ardisia solanacea Roxb. (TSN 23890)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134014
Element Code: PDMRS01320
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Colicwood Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Myrsinaceae Ardisia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ardisia elliptica
Taxonomic Comments: Biota of North America (Kartesz, May 2010 draft) accepts Ardisia elliptica and A. solanacea as distinct. FNA (Vol. 8, 2009) says the names A. solanacea Roxburgh and A. polycephala Wight have been misapplied to specimens of A. elliptica, which escapes from cultivation and is invasive.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
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United States Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic, HIexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Ardisia elliptica can form dense monospecific layers in south Florida hardwood hammocks and unspecified regions in HI.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low
I-Rank Review Date: 25Feb2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: India (Randall and Marinelli 1996; DERM 2003) or SouthEast Asia in general (Francis 2003).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: (Randall and Marinelli 1996).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred - no mention of any effect on hydrology or fire-regime in wet, fire-influenced ecosystems.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Moderate significance
Comments: Dense - virtually monospecific shrub layers (Randall and Marinelli 1996; DERM 2003).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Moderate significance
Comments: More dense shrub layer, shades out understory (DERM 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred- very close relative in Florida - Ardisia escallonioides, may compete for similar habitats, pollinators, seed dispersers.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Hardwood forests in Everglades National Park (Randall and Marinelli 1996).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Florida and Hawaii only (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: Forms monoculture stands in FL (DERM 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: Potential in 2 or 3 ecoregions, inferred from - limited to sub-tropical climates (Kartesz 1999; TNC 2001; Wunderlin and Hansen 2004)

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Hardwood hammocks and old agriculture fields (Randall and Marinelli 1996). Hammocks, old fields, disturbed wetlands, tree islands, cypress and mangrove areas (Langeland and Craddock Burks 1998). Wet, low-lying areas (Francis 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Inferred- some evidence that it may expand in HI given presence of a new bird disperser; limited in FL by freeze line.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Limited to sub-tropical climates.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Birds (Randall and Marinelli 1996). Raccoons, oppossums (Francis 2003). Historically- used as an ornamental (Francis 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance
Comments: Inferred- some evidence that it may expand in HI given presence of a new bird disperser, limited in FL by freeze line.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:High significance
Comments: Found in otherwise intact habitats (DERM 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Low significance
Comments: same habitats in: Seychelles, Mascarenes, Caribbean (Weber 2003)

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Blooms/produces fruit year-round (Francis 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Moderate significance
Comments: Pull seedlings, can use chemicals in dense patches (Randall and Marinelli 1996). Inferred - dense stands under forest canopy, cannot use heavy equipment.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred - not a vigorous resprouter; not a long-lived seed bank.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance
Comments: Similar native species in FL may be targeted wrongly (DERM 2003). Herbicide use associated with non-target damage (Randall and Marinelli 1996).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Invades wet areas under tree canopy which pose access difficulties. May have been planted.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Francis, J. K. 2003. Ardisia elliptica Thunb. US Department of Agriculture. International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF). San Juan, PR. ONLINE http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Ardisia%20elliptica.pdf. Accessed 2004, January.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. Vol. 2. The biota of North America. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 500 pp.

  • Langeland, K.A. and K.C. Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. University of Florida. 165 pp. [http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/identif.html]

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM). 2003. Prohibited Plant Species - Shoebutton Ardisia.

  • Randall, J.M. and J. Marinelli (eds.) 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2004. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. [S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. Online. Available: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu.

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