Arctostaphylos rainbowensis - J. E. Keeley & A. Massihi
Rainbow Manzanita
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctostaphylos rainbowensis J.E. Keeley & A. Massihi (TSN 507811)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131451
Element Code: PDERI042T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Heath Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Ericaceae Arctostaphylos
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctostaphylos rainbowensis
Taxonomic Comments: Described in 1994; accepted by Kartesz (1999). Some of the southern California reports of A. peninsularis are instead this species (Skinner and Pavlik 1994, CNPS; Simpson et al. 1998, for San Diego County; Beauchamp 1986).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31Dec2012
Global Status Last Changed: 26Jul1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Restricted to an area of roughly 275 square km in southern California, bounded by the Aqua Tibia range on the east and Santa Margarita Mountains on the west. Locally plentiful and apparently resistant to many disturbances. However, despite marginal conditions for agriculture, over the past 2 decades many of the known sites have been converted to avocado orchards or residential developments.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Northern San Diego and adjacent southern Riverside counties, California, U.S.A. Total area approximately 275 square km (Keeley and Massihi 1994; Beauchamp 1986 as A. peninsularis).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: 63 EOs: 34 EOs are recent (seen since 1992) and 29 EOs are historic (last seen before 1992).

Population Size Comments: Per Keeley and Massihi (1994), the species is "well represented" around the community of Rainbow, California and east to Mt. Olympus.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Fifteen EOs with excellent or good viability. Four of those EOs haven't been visited since 1990 and it was noted in the late 1980's and early 1990's that these sites were proposed for development (CNDDB 2012).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Nearly every occurrence is threatened either by development of land into avocado orchards or other type of agricultural land or residential development (CNPS 2001 and CNDDB 2003). On the eastern edge of its range, flowers and fruits are often heavily infested with boring insects; on the eastern edges of its range, it is sympatric with A. glandulosa and hybridization and introgression may be occurring (Keeley and Massihi 1994). Some localized threats include recreation (humans, horses, dog-walking), non-native species, and fire (CNDDB 2012).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: In the past 2 decades, many sites have been replaced by avocado orchards. Decline may be higher than 10-30% as many sites (as of 2012) are in some stage of development.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vigorously resprouts, produces copious fruits, and readily establishes seedlings on disturbed sites (Keeley and Massihi 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Northern San Diego and adjacent southern Riverside counties, California, U.S.A. Total area approximately 275 square km (Keeley and Massihi 1994; Beauchamp 1986 as A. peninsularis).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Riverside (06065), San Diego (06073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Aliso-San Onofre (18070301)+, Santa Margarita (18070302)+, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An erect shrub or small tree 1-4 m high, with a large round burl, evident on plants only a year old.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Coastal ranges dominated by exposed bedrock and very large boulders of acid igneous rock. 300-600 m. Readily establishes seedlings on disturbed sites created either by wildfires or, more commonly, by bulldozers (Keeley and Massihi 1994).
Chaparral; elevation 225-640m (California Native Plant Society 2001)

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Dec2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K.; rev. B. MacBryde, 9/2000., L. Oliver (2003), A. Treher (2012)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Beauchamp, R.M. 1986. A flora of San Diego County, California. Sweetwater River Press, California. 241 pp.

  • California Department of Fish and Game. 2000. Natural Diversity Database (RareFind 2), Version 2.1.2, January 25, 2000. Downloaded in 2003.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2012. RareFind Version 4 with dataset 9/1/2012 downloaded from http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/cnddb/rf_ftpinfo.asp. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Keeley, J.E., and A. Massihi. 1994. Arctostaphylos rainbowensis, a new burl-forming manzanita from northern San Diego County, California. Madrono 41(1): 1-12.

  • Simpson, M.G., S.C. McMillan, B.L. Stone, J. Gibson, and J.P. Rebman. Checklist of the vascular plants of San Diego County. 2nd edition, 3rd printing. San Diego State Univ. Herbarium Press, San Diego, California. 87 pp.

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