Arctostaphylos pallida - Eastw.
Alameda Manzanita
Other English Common Names: Pallid Manzanita
Synonym(s): Arctostaphylos andersonii var. pallida (Eastw.) J.E. Adams ex McMinn
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctostaphylos pallida Eastw. (TSN 183603)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135010
Element Code: PDERI04110
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Heath Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Ericaceae Arctostaphylos
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctostaphylos pallida
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 08Mar1988
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the northern Diablo Range in the San Francisco Bay area of California (Alameda and Contra Costa counties). Known from approximately 13 populations, only 2 of which are large. (Approximately three of the 11 small occurrences may have been planted.) A housing development fragmented and destroyed up to 50% of 1 large population. Habitat fragmentation has resulted in fire suppression to protect the nearby residential areas, increased invasions of exotic plants, and hybridization from the introduction of other species of Arctostaphylos into the area. Smaller populations have also been subjected to shading from planted eucalyptus and other trees. Fire suppression - in addition to inhibiting germination - may have helped create conditions suitable for a fungal infection which attacked 1 of the large populations in the 1980s.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (22Apr1998)
Comments on USESA: Arctostaphylos pallida was proposed threatened on August 2, 1995 and determined threatened on April 22, 1998.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: California endemic, occurs in Contra Costa Hills in the northern Diablo Range in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from thirteen occurrences, three of which were planted outside of its native habitat (Federal Register, April 22, 1998).

Population Size Comments: Might be B. There are two large populations, the smaller one having an estimated 1700 to 2000 plants in the mid-1980s. The remaining occurrences are all small, and most have fewer than ten individuals; the largest (of the smaller populations) is estimated to have 65 individuals (Federal Register, April 22, 1998).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Urbanization; many populations surrounded by houses so cannot burn to help rejuvenate plants. Unrestricted collecting is a potential threat. Other threats are alteration of fire regimes, hybridization with other species of Arctostaphylos introduced into its vicinity, fungal infection, and competition with alien and native plants (Federal Register, April 22, 1998). As of 2001 these threats were still current, in addition, road construction and development also are threats (CNPS 2001). In April 2003 the Fish and Wildlife Service announced that a draft recovery plan for this species is underway (Federal Register, July 2003).

Short-term Trend Comments: Of the thirteen documented occurrences of Arctostaphylos pallida, six are considered to be declining, while the trend of the remaining seven is uncertain or unknown (Federal Register, April 22, 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: California endemic, occurs in Contra Costa Hills in the northern Diablo Range in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Alameda (06001), Contra Costa (06013)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: An evergreen shrub, usually 2-4 m tall, but occassionally much larger. Twigs and are bristly. Leaves (2.5-4.5 cm long) clasp the twigs, are strongly overlapping, and have a whitish coating which gives them a pale-dull green color. Dense clusters of urn-shaped white flowers bloom December-March, followed by sticky berry-like fruits.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: The largest populations are in maritime chaparral communities with somewhat mesic soils. Also found in other chaparral communities and in coastal scrub. Soils are generally thin, silica-rich shales. 200-445 m elevation. The species probably requires periodic fire to create bare-soil conditions appropriate for germination and maintain other habitat parameters to which it is adapted.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Apr1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bittman, R.L., rev. Maybury (1997), rev. Gries (1998)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2003a. Notice of Availability of Recovery Draft Plan for Chaparral and Scrub Communities Species East of San Francisco Bay, CA, for Review and Comment. Federal Register 68(66):16826.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Proposed threatened status for Arctostaphylos pallida (pallid manzanita), a plant from the northern Diablo Range of California. Federal Register 60(148): 39309-39314.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Determination of Threatened Status for one plant, Arctostaphylos pallida (Pallid Manzanita), from the Northern Diablo Range of California. Federal Register 62(77) 19842-19850.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.