Arctostaphylos myrtifolia - Parry
Ione Manzanita
Other Common Names: Ione manzanita
Synonym(s): Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ssp. myrtifolia (Parry) J.B. Roof
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctostaphylos myrtifolia Parry (TSN 23502)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156885
Element Code: PDERI04240
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Heath Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Ericaceae Arctostaphylos
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctostaphylos myrtifolia
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Nov2015
Global Status Last Changed: 24Nov2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Narrowly endemic to a habitat found only in a 2400+ ha area of the central Sierra Nevada foothills of California. Locally abundant, Arctostaphylos myrtifolia is the dominant and characteristic species of the community found within this specific habitat. The substrate on which the species occurs contains commercially valuable minerals and a significant, permanent loss of the limited habitat has occurred due to mining. 15 active surface mines extracting sand, gravel, kaolinitic clays, low-grade coal, and other minerals continue to seriously threaten the species. Another potentially major threat is the disease Phytophthora cinnamomi. Fire suppression, residential development, and clearing for agriculture are lesser threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (26May1999)
Comments on USESA: Arctostaphylos myrtifolia was proposed threatened on June 25, 1997 and determined threatened on May 26, 1999.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Ione Formation in Amador County (and slightly into Calaveras County), California.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is habitat degradation/loss. The best site for Arctostaphylos myrtifolia is on private land and is threatened by mining. Urbanization and mining threaten other sites as well. Another potentially major threat is disease. In a study at one site, two diseases were found to be negatively impacting Arctostaphylos myrtifolia: Phytophthora cinnamomi root and crown rot and Fusicoccum branch canker disease (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003) P. cinnamomi is by far the more serious disease and has the potential to both eliminate entire populations and prevent recolonization of infested sites (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003). Clearing of vegetation for agriculture and fire protection, habitat fragmentation, residential and commercial development, changes in fire frequency, and ongoing erosion are other threats (Fish and Wildlife Service 1999).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Permanent loss has occurred due to mining. In addition, the sudden and virtual complete die-off of entire stands of Arctostaphylos myrtifolia has been observed at several locations in the Lone region (Wood and Parker 1989 cited by Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003). The extent of the disease problem is not known (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003).

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Ione Formation in Amador County (and slightly into Calaveras County), California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Amador (06005), Calaveras (06009)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Upper Calaveras (18040011)+*, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, Upper Cosumnes (18040013)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A low, spreading evergreen shrub, < 1.2 m tall, with red-waxy bark and shiny bright green leaves, 6-15 mm long. Clusters of white to pink urn shaped flowers and slender, red bracts appear in January and February, followed by berry-like fruits.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Coarse, very acidic, nutrient-poor soils with cement-like, yellow iron oxide crusts. On these soils - developed under a tropical or subtropical climate 35-57 million years ago - a distinctive, low-growing chaparral community occurs, usually surrounded by taller, more common chaparral types. Arctostaphylos myrtifolia is a dominant of these "Ione chaparral" communities, occuring in nearly pure stands at elevations of 60 to 580 m, with the largest populations occurring between 90 and 280 m. The species is dependant on periodic fire to promote seed germination.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Nov2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bittman, R.L. (1987), rev. Maybury (1997), rev. D. Gries (1999), rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. Treher and Bittman (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Determination of endangered status for the plant Eriogonum apricum (inclusive of vars. apricum and prostratum) (lone Buckwheat) and threatened status for the plant Arctostaphylos myrtifolia (lone Manzanita). Federal Register 64(101):28403-28413.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. 1990. Synonymized checklist of the vascular flora [of North America north of Mexico, and Hawaii]. Unpublished second review draft.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Swiecki, T.J., and E. Bernhardt. 2003. March 10-review draft. Diseases threaten the survival of Ione manzanita (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia). Report prepared for San Francisco State University, Phytosphere Research, Vacaville, California.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Proposed endangered status for the plant Eriogonum apricum (lone buckwheat) and proposed threatened status for the plant Arctostaphylos myrtifolia (lone manzanita). Federal Register 62(122): 34190-34196.

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