Arctomecon humilis - Coville
Dwarf Bear-poppy
Other English Common Names: Common Bearpoppy
Other Common Names: common bearpoppy
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctomecon humilis Coville (TSN 18900)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159159
Element Code: PDPAP02020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Poppy Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Papaverales Papaveraceae Arctomecon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctomecon humilis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Sep2013
Global Status Last Changed: 18Jul1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Narrowly endemic to Washington County, Utah. Known from 11 traditionally accepted concentrations of plants (but some have only human-made obstacles, some unoccupied habitat, or widely scattered individuals forming the separation between them; there are perhaps 7 or 9 distinct locations). The species' habitat is in an area of rapid population growth and expansion and the low, barren hills on which it grows are sought after by off-road vehicle users. Gypsum mining and low gene flow are also threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (06Nov1979)
Comments on USESA: Arctomecon humilis was proposed endangered (along with ~1700 other plants) on June 16, 1976 and determined endangered on November 6, 1979.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Dixie Corridor; extant in Washington Co., Utah. The range extent is approximately 209 km2 based on NatureServe Element Occurrence data (2013).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is 8, 4km2 grid cells (NatureServe Element Occurrence data 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Population Size Comments: Population numbers fluctuate widely from year to year, based on precipitation, and a large seed bank with long lived seeds is a requirement for the maintenance of this species (Harper and Van Buren 2004).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Arctomecon humilis occurs within a 10km radius of the city of St. George, which has undergone urban development and road construction that has fragmented or removed habitat for this species (Allphin et al. 1998, Nelson and Harper 1991). Off-road-vehicles are also a threat since the gypsum shale where this species occurs is attractive to ORV users. ORVs not only destroy plants, cause soil erosion, crush the dominant cryptogamic crusts found strongly associated with the dwarf bear poppy, but they also damage viable seed (Nelson and Harper 1991). Mining claims exist for much of the gypsum substrate where the dwarf bear poppy occurs (Allphin et al. 1998).


Genetic studies reveal that most of the genetic diversity is found within populations and not distributed between populations, suggesting genetic drift. The western most populations of this species are more genetically similar to A. californica than A. humilis and may be relictual (Allphin et al. 1998).

Other threats include attempting to transplant to gardens, and powerline construction.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: It is known that this species is declining as noted by Allphin et al. (1998), due elimination of the species habitat by development and constrution of Interstate 15, and its ongoing maintenance (Nelson and Harper 1991).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Because of its restricted habitat, it probably never was common.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Occurs on gypsiferous shale in Washington Co., UT in sparse shrublands, where cryptogamic species make up most of the living cover in the habitats where the dwarf bear poppy occurs (Nelson and Harper 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Dixie Corridor; extant in Washington Co., Utah. The range extent is approximately 209 km2 based on NatureServe Element Occurrence data (2013).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Washington (49053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb that forms rounded clumps, 1-2.5 dm tall. The abundant white flowers that bloom mid-April through May are showy next to the red soils in which the plant grows.
Reproduction Comments: Dispersed by ants. The seed bank plays an important role in the survival of this short-lived perennial species since the seeds can be dormant and wait long periods between ideal climatic events that initiate germination (Harper and Van Buren 2004).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert
Habitat Comments: Gypsiferous clay soils derived from the Moenkopi Formation. Occurs on rolling low hills and ridge tops, often on barren, open sites in warm desert shrub communities. 700-1402 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Sep2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Greene, L., rev. D. Atwood, rev. B. Franklin (1996), rev. L. Oliver (2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • 100th Congress. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973, appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1988-1992. Public Law 100-478-October 7, 1988 102 STAT.2307-102 STAT.2323.

  • Allphin, L., M. D. Windham, and K. T. Harper. 1998a. Genetic variability and gene flow in the endangered dwarf bear poppy, Arctomecon humilis (Papaveraceae). American Journal of Botany 85(9): 1251-1261.

  • Anderson, J. 1982. DRAFT: Arctomecon humilis Steps 4-5D. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Resource Planning. Region 6, Denver, Colorado.

  • Beckstrom, S. 1998. Fax of June 22 to Ben Franklin from the Southern Region, Division of Wildlife Resources, Cedar City.

  • Bureau of Land Management, Dixie Resource Area. Threatened and Endangered animals and plants.

  • Carter, K.S. 1983. Letter of October 5 to Mr. Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Director, Region 6, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [Enclosure]

  • Creamer & Noble Inc. 2001. St. George Municipal Airport final environmental assessment.

  • Douglas, B. 1992. Results of the Dwarf Bearpoppy monitoring studies completed from the spring of 1987 to 1991. Cooperative effort between Bureau of Land Management, Brigham Young University, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Frates, T. 1985. Letter of November 29 to Larry England of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Harper, K. T. 1991. Letter of March 8 to Dr. J.L. Spinks, Jr. Deputy Regional Director, Denver Federal Center, Denver Colorado.

  • Harper, K. T. and D. R. Nelson. 1989. Letter of March 6 to Mr. Larry England, Botanist, USFWS Endangered Species Office, Salt Lake City, UT.

  • Harper, K. T. and R. Van Buren. 1994. Letter of December 20 to Valorie Armstrong, Botanist, Bureau of Land Management.

  • Harper, K. T. and R. Van Buren. 1996. Arctomecon humilis Coville monitoring report for 1996. Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University and Department of Life Science, Utah Valley State College.

  • Harper, K. T., and R. Van Buren. 2004a. Dynamics of a dwarf bear-poppy (Arctomecon humilis) population over a sixteen-year period. Western North American Naturalist 64(4):482-491.

  • Harper, K.T., and R. Van Buren. 1993. Annual report on Arctomecon humilis monitoring project at the Red Bluff demography plot. BLM UT 910-PH8-3208. December 14, 1993.

  • Hreha, A., and T. Meyer. 1994. Distribution and demographic survey of Pediocactus sileri (Engelm.) L. Benson on the Cedar City BLM District, Washington and Kane counties, southern Utah. Prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management, Utah Sate Office, Salt Lake City.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Meyer, S. 1985. Comments on the recovery plan for the Dwarf Bear Poppy Arctomecon humilis Cov. 2 pp.

  • Montague, C. 1990. Letter of August 27 from the Nature Conservancy Director of Utah Projects to Mr. Dennis Iverson.

  • Nabhan, G.P. 1996. The parable of the poppy and the bee; Why should we save those spineless critters? Nature Conservancy. March/April 1996. pp10-15.

  • Nelson, D. R. 1989. [1] Site characteristics and habitat requirements of the endangered dwarf bear-claw poppy (Arctomecon humilis Coville, Papaveraceae)[;] and [2] Demographic and seed bank biology of Arctomecon humilis (Papaveraceae), a short-lived perennial. Manuscripts of two journal articles presented to the Department of Botany and Range Science[,] Brigham Young University[, Provo, Utah]. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science. 52 pp.

  • Nelson, D. R., and K. T. Harper. 1991. Site characteristics and habitat requirements of the endangered Dwarf Bear-claw Poppy (Arctomecon humilis Coville, Papaveraceae). Great Basin Naturalist 51(2): 167-175.

  • Nelson, D. R., and K. T. Harper. 1991a. Site characteristics and habitat requirements of the endangered dwarf-claw poppy (Arctomecon humilis Coville, Papaveraceae). Great Basin Naturalist 51(2): 167-175.

  • Nelson, D. R., and S. Welsh. 1993. Taxonomic revision of Arctomecon Torr. & Frem. Rhodora 95(883/884):197-213.

  • Nelson, D.R. 1989. Letter of March 31, 1989 to Ben Franklin of the Utah Natural Heritage Program.

  • Niles, W.E. 1981. Letter (comments Arctomecon humilis recovery plan) of October 15 to Don W. Minnich, Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Raynie, D.E., et.al. 1990. Alkaloids of Arctomecon species (Papaveraceae 12-Methoxyallocryptopine, a new protopine alkaloid. Biochem. Sys. and Ecol. 18(1):45-48.

  • Raynie, D.E., et.al. 1991. Alkaloidal relationships in the genus Arctomecon (Papaveraceae) and herbivory in A. humilis. Great Bas. Nat. 51(4): pp. 397-403.

  • Ruby, D.N. 1992. Dwarf Bear Claw Poppy research activities/observations during FY 92.

  • SWCA, INC. Environmental Consultants. 1991. Survey Report - Desert tortoise, endangered plants and raptor habitat in three areas in Washington County, UT. Prepared for Ron Thompson, Washington County Water Conservancy District.

  • Tuhy, J. 1989. Memorandum of April 6 concerning the Bearclaw Poppy (Arctomecon humilis) meeting.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1979. Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants; Determination that Arctomecon humilis is an endangered species. Final Rule. Federal Register. November 6, 1979. 44(216): 64250-64252.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1979. Executive summary - Final rule to determine Arctomecon humilis (dwarf bear-poppy) to be and Endangered species.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1980. DRAFT: Biological opinion on expected effects of proposed Allen-Warner Valley Energy System on three listed plants.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1985. Dwarf bear-poppy (Arctomecon humilis) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 26 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. DRAFT MEMO: USFWS requests of the BLM: Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) designation for the Webb Hill population of Arctomecon humilis. Unpaginated [2 pp.].

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1979. Determination that Arctomecon humilis is an endangered species. Federal Register 44(216): 64250-64252.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Dwarf bear-poppy recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 26 pp.

  • USBLM. [1979]. Lists I, II, and III, i.e., threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant species. Cedar City District. Unpaginated (6 pp.) + map.

  • Wallace, D. 1985. Bearclaws and motorcycles - a firsthand look. Sego Lily. 8(4): 2-3.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of Utah: a reevaluation. Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 1-18.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Status Report: Arctomecon humilis. Unpublished report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Utah Field Office. 6 pp + attachments.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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