Arctium lappa - L.
Greater Burdock
Other English Common Names: Great Burdock
Other Common Names: greater burdock
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctium lappa L. (TSN 36545)
French Common Names: grande bardane
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136327
Element Code: PDAST0M010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Arctium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctium lappa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (31May2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, GA, HIexotic, IAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NDexotic, NEexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SDexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Arctium lappa occurs across the northern U.S. and also in Hawaii, Georgia, and North Carolina. However, it is apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Where it does occur in natural habitats, it is not described as threatening native ecosystems. It is sparingly established as a weed along roadsides and in waste places over most of the northern United States. It is uncommon in the Great Plains. In California it is uncommon and occurs in disturbed places. It is sparingly naturalized in Hawaii on the islands of Oahu, Lanai, and Hawaii. In Badlands National Park, it is characterized as a plant that does not invade native communities. In Yellowstone National Park, it was found along a roadside and eradicated. It does have good potential for long distance dispersal, and produces more than 1000 seeds per plant which may remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years. However, it is biennial, does not reproduce vegetatively, and is a poor competitor. If needed, control is relatively easy.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Low
I-Rank Review Date: 29Jan2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Europe (Hickman 1993).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In Vermont, it occurs in an alluvial floodplain forest (Toomey and Toomey 2002). In the western U.S., it may occur in grasslands and rangelands (USACE 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: In Badlands National Park, it does not produce litter or shade that affects ecosystem processes, does not produce allelochemicals, does not affect the availability of soil nutrients, does not affect the availability of water, and does not change the natural fire regime (NPS 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all and neither of these describe it as threatening native ecosystems. Can germinate in vegetated areas but only under certain conditions (ie disturbance) (NPS 2003).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all and neither of these describe it as threatening native ecosystems.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: Apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all and neither of these describe it as threatening native ecosystems. Not known to hybridize with native species (NPS 2003).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all and neither of these describe it as threatening native ecosystems. In Vermont, it occurs in an alluvial floodplain forest (Toomey and Toomey 2002). In the western U.S., it may occur in grasslands and rangelands (USACE 2003).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Across the northern U.S. and also in Hawaii, Georgia, and North Carolina (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Insignificant
Comments: Sparingly establishled as a weed along roadsides and in waste places over most of the northern United States (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Uncommon in the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Assoc. 1986). In California, uncommon; occurs in disturbed places (Hickman 1993). Sparingly naturalized in Hawaii on Oahu, Lanai, and Hawaii (Wagner 1999). According to the floras, it is uncommon and occurs in disturbed places. In the Badlands National Park, it is characterized as a plant that does not invade native communities (NPS 2003). In Yellowstone National Park, it was found along a roadside and eradicated (Yellowstone Center for Resources 2000). Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all and neither of these describe it as threatening native ecosystems. Therefore, it does not seem to be negatively impacting biodiversity.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: 33 or more units, inferred from Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In Vermont, it occurs in an alluvial floodplain forest (Toomey and Toomey 2002). In the western U.S., it may occur in grasslands and rangelands (USACE 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: It is found in disturbed areas. It is sparingly established as a weed along roadsides and in waste places over most of the northern United States (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In California, it is uncommon and occurs in disturbed places (Hickman 1993). Disturbed areas are not declining, therefore it is presumed to be not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Roughly 70%, based on USDA (1990).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: The heads are large and densely bristly (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Spread by furred wildlife, livestock, and people (Royal British Columbia Museum). It has great potential for long-distance dispersal (NPS 2003).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: In the Badlands it is found in less than 5% of the site and has shown little or no increase in numbers (NPS 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: In the Badlands, it is associated with early successional species and only occurs on sites that have been disturbed within the last 3 years or are regulary disturbed (NPS 2003). Sparingly establishled as a weed along roadsides and in waste places over most of the northern United States (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In California, uncommon; occurs in disturbed places (Hickman 1993). In Yellowstone National Park, it was found along a roadside and eradicated (Yellowstone Center for Resources 2000). Apparently rarely found outside of disturbed areas. Only two references (Toomey and Toomey 2002; USACE 2000) mention it occuring in natural habitats at all, within the region of interest. In Vermont, it occurs in an alluvial floodplain forest (Toomey and Toomey 2002). In the western U.S., it may occur in grasslands and rangelands (USACE 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Moderate significance
Comments: Occurs in gaps on a forested ridge in Manitoba (Shay 1999). Apparently it has not yet escaped in this habitat in the region of interest.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Produces more than 1000 seeds per plant (NPS 2003). Seeds may remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (NPS 2003). However, it does not reproduce vegetatively and only reproduces sexually every other year (NPS 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Easy to control (NPS 2003). Can be controlled with Glyphosate or by digging out (USACE 2003).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Moderate significance
Comments: It sprouts from the roots and seeds may remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years (NPS 2003).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Insignificant
Comments: Control measures have little potential to affect native communities (NPS 2003).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Occurs on public lands where the government agency overseeing the land has published documents concerning the impact and control of exotic species including it (NPS 2003; USACE 2003). The plant also frequently occurs near roads, (Gleason and Cronquist 1991) so accesibility does not appear to be a great problem.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken. 2004.
    Jepson Flora Project, Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.html (Accessed 2004).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 19. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 6: Asteraceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 579 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association (R.L. McGregor, coordinator; T.M. Barkley, ed., R.E. Brooks and E.K. Schofield, associate eds.). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1392 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • National Park Service. 2003. Badlands National Park Integrated Weed Management Plant and Environmental Assessment, March 2003. National Park Service. Online. Available: http://planning.nps.gov/plans1.cfm (accessed January 2004).

  • Royal British Columbia Museum. No date. Natural History, A Compendium of Environmental and Resource Information, Exotic Species. Online. Available: http://livinglandscapes.bc.ca/cbasin/history/content.htm (accessed 28 January 2004).

  • Shay, J.M. 1999. Annotated vascular plant species list for the Delta Marsh, Manitoba and surrounding area. University of Manitoba Field Station (Delta Marsh) Occasional Publication No. 2, Winnipeg, Canada. 52 pp.Online. Available: http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/science/delta_marsh/ (accessed 28 January 2004).

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Toomey, B., and B.H. Toomey. 2002. Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze (Yellow Giant Hyssop) New England Plant Conservation Program Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts. Online. Available: http://www.newfs.org (accessed 28 January 2004).

  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 2003. Guidance for Non-native Invasive Plant Species on Army lands: Eastern United State. Public Works Technical Bulletin 200-1-19, 13 March 2003. Department of the Army, Washington, DC. Online. Available: http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/techinfo/CPW/pwtb.htm (accessed 29 January 2004).

  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 2003. Guidance for Non-native Invasive Plant Species on Army lands: Western United States. Public Works Technical Bulletin 200-1-18, 13 March 2003. Department of the Army, Washington, DC. Online. Available: http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/techinfo/CPW/pwtb.htm (accessed 29 January 2004).

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • Yellowstone Center for Resources. 2000. Yellowstone Center for Resources Annual Report, 2000. National Park Service, Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, YCR-AR-2000. Online. Available: http://www.nps.gov/yell/publications/ (accessed 28 January 2004).

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