Arabis mcdonaldiana - Eastw.
Red Mountain Rockcress
Other English Common Names: McDonald's rock-cress
Synonym(s): Arabis macdonaldiana Eastw.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arabis macdonaldiana Eastw. (TSN 22710)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.132067
Element Code: PDBRA06150
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Arabis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arabis macdonaldiana
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1994 checklist and 1999 Synthesis) spells this name 'macdonaldiana'. Flora of North America (vol. 7, 2010) and the International Plant Name Index (as of April 18, 2011) spell it 'mcdonaldiana.' In the original Federal Register notice listing this species as endangered, the USFWS spelled the epithet 'macdonaldiana.' However, in the October 31, 1995, special reprint of the list of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants, the epithet was spelled 'mcdonaldiana'; as of May, 1999, this spelling was still used in USFWS documents, along with the common name "McDonald's rock-cress" (e.g., species list on USFWS web site, accessed 21May1999). As of the March 25, 2009 Federal Register initiation of 5 year review, USFWS spells the epithet 'macdonaldiana' with the common name still McDonald's rock-cress. Although the 1978 USFWS listing notice did not specifically address taxonomy, it is presumed that the treatment used by USFWS did not include A. serpentinicola, since A. serpentinicola was given a category 2 candidate status in 1993, independently of previously listed A. macdonaldiana.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Dec2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Restricted to serpentine areas and known from 30-40 sites in northern California (Mendocino, Del Norte and Siskiyou counties) and immediately adjacent southwestern Oregon. Some populations are threatened by mining of the nickel-rich soils of its habitat and encroachment of woody vegetation. Many sites are on USFS lands, but none may be in permanent protection.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S3), Oregon (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (28Sep1978)
Comments on USESA: Arabis macdonaldiana was proposed endangered on June 16, 1976 and determined endangered on September 28, 1978.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in the Siskiyou mountains of Curry and Josephine counties, Oregon. In California, the species is reported from Del Norte, Mendocino, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: California has 29 occurrences, 4 of which are historic. Oregon has 10 occurrences but one is historic.

Population Size Comments: The total number of known plants is about 17,500.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Mining is the greatest threat (CNPS 2001, CNDDB 2003). The California Natural Diversity Database reports that grazing was observed at one occurrence (2003). This situation was unchanged in January 2006. Lack of fire, which leads to competition from woody vegetation, is a threat.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The short term trend is estimated to be slightly declining due to mining activities.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: The long term trend is estimated to be declining due to mining activities.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: On lands frequently mined for strategic metals.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Known from 2 or 3 specific areas on serpentine on the north coast of California and in Oregon.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in the Siskiyou mountains of Curry and Josephine counties, Oregon. In California, the species is reported from Del Norte, Mendocino, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Del Norte (06015), Mendocino (06045), Siskiyou (06093)
OR Curry (41015), Josephine (41033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Rogue (17100310)+, Illinois (17100311)+, Chetco (17100312)+
18 Smith (18010101)+, South Fork Eel (18010106)+, Lower Klamath (18010209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with several sparsely-leaved stems, 1-3 dm tall, arising from basal rosettes of leaves. Flowers (May-June) are rose-purple, borne on the tops of the stems.
General Description: A short-lived perennial plant, usually about 4-12 inches tall, with pink to purple flowers borne at or near the ends of the stalks. Stem leaves, 2-8, simple and entire; basal leaves, spatulate, appearing smooth and shiny, slightly toothed, forming a rosette. Seeds pods about 1.5 inches long.
Technical Description: Short-lived perennial, older plants with highly branched caudices, caudex branches short and somewhat stiff, to rarely long, decumbent, and forming new rosettes at their tip, 0.6-8 cm long to 2 mm wide, rosettes 1-12. Flowering stems 3.3-16.7 cm to first pedicel, 3.7-24.7 cm to tip in flower, 4.5-27.1 cm to tip in fruit, glabrous to pubescent below with simple, forked or dendritic trichomes to 1.5 mm, trichomes often less dense and finer above. Basal leaves 7-32 mm long by 2.2-13 mm wide, slightly to strongly lobed, lobes to 2 mm, pubescent or ciliate with simple, forked or dendritic trichomes to 1.5 mm. Cauline leaves 2-8, 3-21 mm long, entire to lobed, pubescent or ciliate with simple, forked or dendritic trichomes to 1.5 mm. Inflorescence a simple raceme or with occasional single flowers in axils of upper cauline leaves. Pedicels 2-6 mm in flower, 3-14 mm in fruit, with appressed to 1 mm simple, forked or dendritic trichomes. Number of flowers 4-19/inflorescence with up to 6 open at one time, medium to deep pink. Sepals 3.2-7.5 mm by 1.2-2.8 mm wide, with fine to 0.5 (0.75) mm forked or dendritic trichomes, light green to pink. Petals 8-14 mm, claw 4-6.5 mm, blade 4-8 mm by 2.5-5.0 mm wide. Tall filaments 3-7 mm, short filaments 2-5 mm, anthers 1.0-2.0 mm. Nectaries spongy tissue below at base of all stamens. Pistils 3-8 mm, stigmas 0.2-0.6 mm wide, ovaries glabrous. Fruits 0-12 (maturing/stem), 22-58 mm by 1.5-2.1 mm wide, with obvious midvein from 30-100% of tip. Seeds oblong, 2.0-2.8 mm by 1.0-1.6 mm wide, wing 0.1-0.2 mm laterally and 0.1-0.3 mm distally, red to dark brown. (Vorobik, personal comment)
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Rocky serpentine areas or reddish soils derived from serpentinite. In dry open woods or brushy steep slopes or ledges. Usually at elevations of about 1200 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Dec2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bittman, R.L., rev. Maybury (1997), rev. R. Bittman (2006), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • California Department of Fish and Game. 2000. Natural Diversity Database (RareFind 2), Version 2.1.2, January 25, 2000. Downloaded in 2003.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. California Native Plant Society's Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 338 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1978. Determination of five plants as endangered species. Federal Register 43(189): 44810-44812.

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