Apodemia mormo langei - J. A. Comstock, 1939
Lange's Metalmark
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Apodemia mormo langei J. A. Comstock, 1939 (TSN 201270)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.108037
Element Code: IILEPH7012
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Riodinidae Apodemia
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.
Concept Reference Code: B08PEL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Apodemia mormo langei
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 04Aug2015
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This is a critically imperiled subspecies in decline and on the verge of extinction as of 2006-2007.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (01Sep1998)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (01Jun1976)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada
IUCN Red List Category: NE - Not evaluated

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Endemic to Antioch Dunes NWR and iimmediately adjacent (<150 meters) land. The entire dune system is now about 67 acres, not all of which supports Lange's metalmark. About 55 acres are protected probably including all occupied habitat. The original range was proebably a few dozen square miles.

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are two remnant colonies, parts of an originally much larger population, that had some gene flow as recently as the 1980s, and quite possibly since then, and are less than a mile apart. One occurrence.

Population Size: 50 - 250 individuals
Population Size Comments: Based on actual population estimates by mark release-recapture, there were probably fewer than 1000 adults most years from 1977 to 1983. Since 1986 there are only estimates based of numbers observed. Even if all individuals present were observed, which is very unlikely, this methodology would underestimate actual population size because daily turnover, and early and late flying individuals are not accounted for. Nevertheless these peak are quite sufficient for monitoring relative change, and such estimates reached 2000 in 1991 and a maximum of 2345 in 1999, followed by a steady decline down to 45 in 2006, and 89 in 2007. It is possible, but undocumented and should not be assumed, that some pupae remain in diapause through unfavorable years and that very low numbers some years in part reflect this.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None (zero)
Viability/Integrity Comments: See USFWS (2008), this population has declined steadily since 1999 when it was well over 2000, to the point captive breeding has started. The lowest number observed was in 2006 at 45 at peak period. This is not a population estimate, but clearly shows a decline from previous years. It seems likely there were fewer than 100 adults in 2006 and probably not much over 100 in 2007 when the peak count was 89. At present the sole occurrence is not viable, although recovery is still possible and releases of captive individuals started in 2008, with 112 adults observed the following season.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The main threat as of 2008 is thought to be invasive weeds affecting the foodplant, and possibly other aspects of the habitat. Numbers since 2005, and probably since 2002 are low enough for genetic deterioration to be likely, and probably inevitable. Fire also a threat, and while not mentioned by USFWS (2008), the Xerces Society red list profile of this species (Black and Vaughan 2005) points out that about 40% of the habitat burned in 2000 and that recent counts have been under 450 adults. However, the actual USFWS data show about 1200 adults in 2000 (pre-fire) and 700 in 2001, which is closely proportional to the extent of the burn, declining to slightly over 500 or less after that, which is unlikely to be attributable to the fire. Foodplants probably need a few years to recover to useable condition, and most individuals of any life stage would perish in the area actually burned. The habitat is largely protected from direct human disturbance.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Short-term Trend Comments: See USFWS (1998) the trend has been steadily downward after 1999, with a decline of more than 95%.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Long-term Trend Comments: Undoubtedly well over 99% compared to pre-sand mining numbers.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Extremely sensitive to loss of host plant, as will not utilize host until it is four or five years old.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: None

Protection Needs: Captive breeding became essential and is underway in the mid 2000s. Unless habitat issues, apparently mostly invasive weeds, can be adequately addressed very soon this butterfly is likely to become extinct in the wild. Even with weed control recovery of the foodplants would take a season or more.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) Endemic to Antioch Dunes NWR and iimmediately adjacent (<150 meters) land. The entire dune system is now about 67 acres, not all of which supports Lange's metalmark. About 55 acres are protected probably including all occupied habitat. The original range was proebably a few dozen square miles.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Contra Costa (06013)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 San Joaquin Delta (18040003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Butterfly, Lycaenidae.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Habitat Comments: Riverbank sand dunes; host is Eriogonum latifolium ssp. auriculatum. Only uses plants that are four or five years old.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Biological Research Needs: Possibly habitat issues.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Feb2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Black, S. H. and D. M. Vaughan. 2005. Species Profile: Apodemia mormo langei. In Shepherd, M. D., D. M. Vaughan, and S. H. Black (Eds). 2005. Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America. CD-ROM Version 1 (May 2005). Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.

  • Howard, A. Q., and R. A. Arnold. 1980. The Antioch Dunes-safe at last? Fremontia October 1980:3-13.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Opler, P., and J. A. Powell. 1961 [1962]. Taxonomic and distributional studies on the western components of the Apodemia mormo Complex (Riodinidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 15(3):145-171.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1976. Determination that six species of butterflies are endangered species. Federal Register 41(106):22041-4.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Lange's Metalmark butterfly (Apodemia mormo langei), Antioch Dunes evening primrose (Oenothera deltoides var. howellii), aand Contra Costa wall flowerr (Erysimum capiatum var. angustatum), 5 year review: summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA. acessed on line at http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1927.pdf.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.